قُلۡ ہَلۡ تَرَبَّصُوۡنَ بِنَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِحۡدَی الۡحُسۡنَیَیۡنِ ؕ وَ نَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِکُمۡ اَنۡ یُّصِیۡبَکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِعَذَابٍ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِہٖۤ اَوۡ بِاَیۡدِیۡنَا ۫ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوۡۤا اِنَّا مَعَکُمۡ مُّتَرَبِّصُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
قُلۡ هَلۡ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡحُسۡنَيَيۡنِۖ وَنَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمۡ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابٖ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦٓ أَوۡ بِأَيۡدِينَاۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَكُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ
1190. A true Muslim either dies fighting or wins victory. There is no other alternative left to him. (close)
The "two good things" referred to in this verse are martyrdom and victory. Only one of these two things can fall to the lot of believers in a war. Either they win and triumph or they die on the battlefield and become martyrs. Hence, the evil desires which the disbelievers and hypocrites entertained concerning the Muslims could never be fulfilled. The verse thus purports to say that true believers can never suffer a defeat; they either die fighting and thus win martyrdom or they return victorious from the field of battle. (close)
قُلۡ اَنۡفِقُوۡا طَوۡعًا اَوۡ کَرۡہًا لَّنۡ یُّتَقَبَّلَ مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّکُمۡ کُنۡتُمۡ قَوۡمًا فٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
قُلۡ أَنفِقُواْ طَوۡعًا أَوۡ كَرۡهٗا لَّن يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنكُمۡ إِنَّكُمۡ كُنتُمۡ قَوۡمٗا فَٰسِقِينَ
1191. Nature of the punishment meted out to the Hypocrites is worthy of special note. No fine was imposed on them, nor were they imprisoned nor subjected to punishment generally inflicted for offences of this nature. They were simply told that Zakat, which was a means of purifying their souls would not be accepted from them. This shows that the dealings of the Holy Prophet with the Hypocrites were not dictated by any monetary or mundane considerations. (close)
The expression, it shall not be accepted from you, means that if the hypocrites offered to pay the Zakah or any other subscription, it should not be accepted from them in expiation of their non-participation in the expedition. The nature of the punishment meted out to the hypocrites is worthy of special notice. No fine was levied on them, nor were they imprisoned nor subjected to a punishment generally inflicted for offences of this nature. They were simply told that as, by disobeying the command of God and refusing to serve Islam at a time of great danger, they were doomed, Zakah, which was a means of purification and, therefore, of winning salvation, would not be accepted from them. This shows that the dealings of the Holy Prophet with the hypocrites were not dictated by any monetary or mundane considerations. (close)
وَ مَا مَنَعَہُمۡ اَنۡ تُقۡبَلَ مِنۡہُمۡ نَفَقٰتُہُمۡ اِلَّاۤ اَنَّہُمۡ کَفَرُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ بِرَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ لَا یَاۡتُوۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ اِلَّا وَ ہُمۡ کُسَالٰی وَ لَا یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ اِلَّا وَ ہُمۡ کٰرِہُوۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾
وَمَا مَنَعَهُمۡ أَن تُقۡبَلَ مِنۡهُمۡ نَفَقَٰتُهُمۡ إِلَّآ أَنَّهُمۡ كَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِۦ وَلَا يَأۡتُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ كُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ كَٰرِهُونَ
a. 4:143. (close)
a. 4:143. (close)
Good works are of two kinds: (1) those done for the purification of one’s own soul, of which Prayer is the most important, and (2) those done for the uplift of one’s community, of which Zakah or other similar subscriptions form an important part. Hypocrites, the verse points out, are lazy and reluctant in both these fields. (close)
فَلَا تُعۡجِبۡکَ اَمۡوَالُہُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَوۡلَادُہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ لِیُعَذِّبَہُمۡ بِہَا فِی الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا وَ تَزۡہَقَ اَنۡفُسُہُمۡ وَ ہُمۡ کٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۵۵﴾
فَلَا تُعۡجِبۡكَ أَمۡوَٰلُهُمۡ وَلَآ أَوۡلَٰدُهُمۡۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُم بِهَا فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَتَزۡهَقَ أَنفُسُهُمۡ وَهُمۡ كَٰفِرُونَ
b. 9:85. (close)
1192. Hypocrites are warned that their wealth and their children, for whose sake they had refrained from going to battle, would become a source of extreme mental torture for them. Their children would embrace the Faith they hate and would spend their wealth to further and strengthen its cause. (close)
The verse warns the hypocrites that their possessions and their children, for whose sake they refrained from going to battle, would become a source of torture for them.
Their children would embrace the faith they hate and would become its devoted followers and, thus, their wealth would also be used in furthering and strengthening the very cause which they abhorred. Think of the shock which ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, leader of the hypocrites at Medina, must have felt on learning that his own son had asked the Holy Prophet to allow him to kill his father when the latter, on one occasion, used highly insulting and threatening language regarding the Holy Prophet and tried to create discord among the Faithful. (close)
وَ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ اِنَّہُمۡ لَمِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ مَا ہُمۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ وَ لٰکِنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ یَّفۡرَقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾
وَيَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ إِنَّهُمۡ لَمِنكُمۡ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمۡ وَلَٰكِنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٞ يَفۡرَقُونَ
1212. Important Words:
یفرقون (are timorous) is derived from فرق which means, he feared or was afraid or he became frightened. They say فرقت منكi.e. I feared thee or I was in fear of thee. فرق علیه means, he feared for him. فرق also means, he entered into a wave and dived therein (Lane).
As the Muslims predominated at Medina, the hypocrites who lacked moral courage had to conceal their infidelity and even outwardly became Muslims to secure worldly advantages. They had no faith in their hearts, but they did not possess the courage to openly give vent to their real feelings. (close)
لَوۡ یَجِدُوۡنَ مَلۡجَاً اَوۡ مَغٰرٰتٍ اَوۡ مُدَّخَلًا لَّوَلَّوۡا اِلَیۡہِ وَ ہُمۡ یَجۡمَحُوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
لَوۡ يَجِدُونَ مَلۡجَـًٔا أَوۡ مَغَٰرَٰتٍ أَوۡ مُدَّخَلٗا لَّوَلَّوۡاْ إِلَيۡهِ وَهُمۡ يَجۡمَحُونَ
1213. Important Words:
یجمحون (rushing uncontrollably) is derived from جمح. They say جمح الفرس i.e. the horse broke loose or ran way and went at random so as not to be turned by anything; or it ran so as to have the mastery over its rider. جمح الرجل means, the man went at random without consideration or aim and not obeying a guide to the right course. جمح مرادہ means, the object of his desire baffled his efforts to attain it. The words ھم یجمحون mean, they hasten or go quickly so that nothing turns them back, like horses that become ungovernable by their riders (Lane & Aqrab).
The preceding verse speaks of the extreme fear of the hypocrites. As one, who is in a state of fear, generally takes to one of the three possible places of rescue, the present verse refers to all those three places, whether real or supposed. These are (1) ملجأ i.e. place of refuge; (2) مغارات i.e. caves; and (3) مدخلا i.e. a hole or a burrow. The first idea of a man in fright is to go to his friends and seek refuge with them. This is referred to in the word ملجأ (place of refuge). If, however, one has no friend to go to, one seeks the shelter of nature in a cave, etc. This is spoken of in the word مغارات (caves). But there may be occasions when even a cave is not available for shelter. In such a case, a frightened man tries to hide his head in any hole or burrow that may happen to be near, just as an animal in fright does. This is referred to in the word مدخلا (hole). Thus, the verse refers to the extreme fear of the hypocrites which they feel when confronted with an opportunity to fight in the way of God. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّلۡمِزُکَ فِی الصَّدَقٰتِ ۚ فَاِنۡ اُعۡطُوۡا مِنۡہَا رَضُوۡا وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ یُعۡطَوۡا مِنۡہَاۤ اِذَا ہُمۡ یَسۡخَطُوۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَلۡمِزُكَ فِي ٱلصَّدَقَٰتِ فَإِنۡ أُعۡطُواْ مِنۡهَا رَضُواْ وَإِن لَّمۡ يُعۡطَوۡاْ مِنۡهَآ إِذَا هُمۡ يَسۡخَطُونَ
c. 9:79. (close)
a. 9:79. (close)
1214. Important Words:
یلمزك (find fault with thee) is derived from لمز. They say لمزہ i.e. he made a sign to him with the eye or the head, etc.; he blamed or found fault with him; he spoke evil of him. It also means, he pushed or impelled or repelled him. لمزة occurring elsewhere in the Quran (104:2) means, one who blames or reproaches or finds fault with others much or habitually; one who speaks evil of others and defames them; a separator of companions and friends, who goes about with calumny (Lane).
As the hypocrites had joined Muslims to secure worldly advantages, therefore, if they were given something out of Zakah or legal alms, they were pleased; but if they failed to get anything, they grumbled and began to find fault with the Prophet. This is one of the unmistakable signs of a hypocrite. (close)
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ رَضُوۡا مَاۤ اٰتٰٮہُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ۙ وَ قَالُوۡا حَسۡبُنَا اللّٰہُ سَیُؤۡتِیۡنَا اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ ۙ اِنَّاۤ اِلَی اللّٰہِ رٰغِبُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۹﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ رَضُواْ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ سَيُؤۡتِينَا ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَرَسُولُهُۥٓ إِنَّآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ رَٰغِبُونَ
اِنَّمَا الصَّدَقٰتُ لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ الۡعٰمِلِیۡنَ عَلَیۡہَا وَ الۡمُؤَلَّفَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ فِی الرِّقَابِ وَ الۡغٰرِمِیۡنَ وَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ؕ فَرِیۡضَۃً مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۰﴾
۞إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَٰتُ لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلۡعَٰمِلِينَ عَلَيۡهَا وَٱلۡمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمۡ وَفِي ٱلرِّقَابِ وَٱلۡغَٰرِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِۖ فَرِيضَةٗ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
1193. Sadaqat here means, obligatory alms, i.e. Zakat. The verse defines the objects and persons on whom Zakat is to be spent: (a) Fuqara’ (from the root Faqara which means, it broke the vertebrae of his back—Lane) i.e. those broken with poverty or disease. (b) Masakin, i.e. those possessing the ability to work but lacking the means thereof. (c) Those employed in collecting the Zakat or in keeping an account thereof or in the performance of any other duty connected with it. (d) New converts to Islam in need of monetary help. (e) Slaves, captives and such other persons as are called upon to pay blood- money to secure their freedom. (f) Those unable to pay their debts or have suffered extraordinary loss in business, etc. (g) Any noble cause. (h) Those stranded on a journey for lack of money or those who travel in search of knowledge or for promoting social relations. (close)
1215. Important Words:
صدقات (alms) is the plural of and here signifies Zakah. See also 4:5.
الفقراء (the poor) is the plural of فقیر which is derived from) فقر (faqara) which means, he dug the ground or he dug a well to draw forth water; or he bored or perforated beads, etc. فقر البعیر means, he made an incision in the nose of the camel to render it tractable. فقرہ also means, he broke the فقار or vertebrae of his back. فقر (faqura) or فقر (faqira) or افتقرmeans, he was or became poor or needy. فقر (faqrun) means, poverty, want or need; the state of a man when he has only what suffices for his household. فقیر means, poor or needy; one having only what suffices for his household; one who has only a bare sufficiency of food; one who is crippled by disease; one who has no trade or has only a mean trade. The word (one who possesses only what is barely sufficient) differs from مسکین (for which see below) which means, one who possesses nothing, altogether destitute. Some authorities however differ from this view (Lane). See also 2:269.
المساکین (the needy) is the plural of مسکین which is derived from سکن which means, he or it was or became still, motionless or stationary or quiet or clam. مسکین means, lowly, humble or submissive; low, abject or in a state of humiliation; weak, subdued or suppressed; poor; destitute, i.e. possessing nothing; or possessing somewhat; rendered by poverty to have little power of motion. Authorities differ as to who is in a worse condition—فقیر or مسکین (Lane).
In the previous verse reference was made to the displeasure of the hypocrites if they were not given a share in the Zakah. The present verse defines the objects for which Zakah is to be spent and these, as the verse explains, are eight in number.
The first-mentioned class, i.e. فقراء (the poor), signifies those broken or perforated with poverty or disease, whereas, the second-mentioned class, i.e. مساکین (the needy) signifies those rendered motionless through want of means, e.g. the unemployed, or those possessing the ability to work but lacking the means thereof.
The words, those employed in connection therewith, signify those who are employed in collecting Zakah, or in keeping an account thereof or in the performance of any other duty connected therewith.
The words, whose hearts are to be reconciled, mean those whose hearts are sincerely inclined towards Islam but who, owing to their having become disconnected with their former society, stand in need of monetary help. The term extends to new converts also.
The word, slaves, signifies, besides actual slaves, captives and such persons as are called upon to pay blood money to secure their freedom.
The expression, for those in debt, means those who are unable to pay their debts or those who have suffered an extraordinary loss in trade, etc.
The words, for the cause of Allah, imply every good or pious work commanded by God.
The term ابن السبیل (the wayfarer) includes those stranded on a journey for lack of money; or those who travel in search of knowledge or for promoting social relations. See also 2:178. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ النَّبِیَّ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ہُوَ اُذُنٌ ؕ قُلۡ اُذُنُ خَیۡرٍ لَّکُمۡ یُؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ یُؤۡمِنُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۱﴾
وَمِنۡهُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡذُونَ ٱلنَّبِيَّ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٞۚ قُلۡ أُذُنُ خَيۡرٖ لَّكُمۡ يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَيُؤۡمِنُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَرَحۡمَةٞ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمۡۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡذُونَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
1194. Udhun (lit. meaning an ear) signifies, one who listens to and believes in everything that is said to him. Of the many contemptuous and disparaging remarks that the Holy Prophet’s traducers made about him one was that he listened to and readily believed as true all reports that were conveyed to him so that he had become, as it were, the very organ of hearing. (close)
a. 9:128; 21:108. (close)
a. 9:128; 21:108. (close)
The hypocrites, by using the words, ھو اذن i.e. he gives ear to all, (lit. "he is all ear") with regard to the Holy Prophet, meant to say that he was always listening to the reports of his reporters and thus, by reason of the excess of this practice, he had become, as it were, the very organ of hearing. The verse replies to this taunt of the hypocrites by saying that the Prophet did indeed receive reports but this practice was essential for good administration; for if he who is in power does not keep himself well-informed, he cannot rule with justice.
Moreover, by using the words, is good for you, the verse hints that though the Prophet did listen to reports about the machinations of the hypocrites, he never punished them merely on the basis of these reports without first ascertaining whether they were true or false, and even when they proved to be true, he very often pardoned them. So, it was not right for them to taunt him for keeping himself informed of what went on around him. (close)