وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّلۡمِزُکَ فِی الصَّدَقٰتِ ۚ فَاِنۡ اُعۡطُوۡا مِنۡہَا رَضُوۡا وَ اِنۡ لَّمۡ یُعۡطَوۡا مِنۡہَاۤ اِذَا ہُمۡ یَسۡخَطُوۡنَ ﴿۵۸﴾
وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَلۡمِزُكَ فِي ٱلصَّدَقَٰتِ فَإِنۡ أُعۡطُواْ مِنۡهَا رَضُواْ وَإِن لَّمۡ يُعۡطَوۡاْ مِنۡهَآ إِذَا هُمۡ يَسۡخَطُونَ
c. 9:79. (close)
a. 9:79. (close)
1214. Important Words:
یلمزك (find fault with thee) is derived from لمز. They say لمزہ i.e. he made a sign to him with the eye or the head, etc.; he blamed or found fault with him; he spoke evil of him. It also means, he pushed or impelled or repelled him. لمزة occurring elsewhere in the Quran (104:2) means, one who blames or reproaches or finds fault with others much or habitually; one who speaks evil of others and defames them; a separator of companions and friends, who goes about with calumny (Lane).
As the hypocrites had joined Muslims to secure worldly advantages, therefore, if they were given something out of Zakah or legal alms, they were pleased; but if they failed to get anything, they grumbled and began to find fault with the Prophet. This is one of the unmistakable signs of a hypocrite. (close)
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ رَضُوۡا مَاۤ اٰتٰٮہُمُ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ۙ وَ قَالُوۡا حَسۡبُنَا اللّٰہُ سَیُؤۡتِیۡنَا اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ ۙ اِنَّاۤ اِلَی اللّٰہِ رٰغِبُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۹﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ رَضُواْ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ سَيُؤۡتِينَا ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَرَسُولُهُۥٓ إِنَّآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ رَٰغِبُونَ
اِنَّمَا الصَّدَقٰتُ لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ الۡعٰمِلِیۡنَ عَلَیۡہَا وَ الۡمُؤَلَّفَۃِ قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ فِی الرِّقَابِ وَ الۡغٰرِمِیۡنَ وَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ؕ فَرِیۡضَۃً مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۰﴾
۞إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَٰتُ لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلۡعَٰمِلِينَ عَلَيۡهَا وَٱلۡمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمۡ وَفِي ٱلرِّقَابِ وَٱلۡغَٰرِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِۖ فَرِيضَةٗ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
1193. Sadaqat here means, obligatory alms, i.e. Zakat. The verse defines the objects and persons on whom Zakat is to be spent: (a) Fuqara’ (from the root Faqara which means, it broke the vertebrae of his back—Lane) i.e. those broken with poverty or disease. (b) Masakin, i.e. those possessing the ability to work but lacking the means thereof. (c) Those employed in collecting the Zakat or in keeping an account thereof or in the performance of any other duty connected with it. (d) New converts to Islam in need of monetary help. (e) Slaves, captives and such other persons as are called upon to pay blood- money to secure their freedom. (f) Those unable to pay their debts or have suffered extraordinary loss in business, etc. (g) Any noble cause. (h) Those stranded on a journey for lack of money or those who travel in search of knowledge or for promoting social relations. (close)
1215. Important Words:
صدقات (alms) is the plural of and here signifies Zakah. See also 4:5.
الفقراء (the poor) is the plural of فقیر which is derived from) فقر (faqara) which means, he dug the ground or he dug a well to draw forth water; or he bored or perforated beads, etc. فقر البعیر means, he made an incision in the nose of the camel to render it tractable. فقرہ also means, he broke the فقار or vertebrae of his back. فقر (faqura) or فقر (faqira) or افتقرmeans, he was or became poor or needy. فقر (faqrun) means, poverty, want or need; the state of a man when he has only what suffices for his household. فقیر means, poor or needy; one having only what suffices for his household; one who has only a bare sufficiency of food; one who is crippled by disease; one who has no trade or has only a mean trade. The word (one who possesses only what is barely sufficient) differs from مسکین (for which see below) which means, one who possesses nothing, altogether destitute. Some authorities however differ from this view (Lane). See also 2:269.
المساکین (the needy) is the plural of مسکین which is derived from سکن which means, he or it was or became still, motionless or stationary or quiet or clam. مسکین means, lowly, humble or submissive; low, abject or in a state of humiliation; weak, subdued or suppressed; poor; destitute, i.e. possessing nothing; or possessing somewhat; rendered by poverty to have little power of motion. Authorities differ as to who is in a worse condition—فقیر or مسکین (Lane).
In the previous verse reference was made to the displeasure of the hypocrites if they were not given a share in the Zakah. The present verse defines the objects for which Zakah is to be spent and these, as the verse explains, are eight in number.
The first-mentioned class, i.e. فقراء (the poor), signifies those broken or perforated with poverty or disease, whereas, the second-mentioned class, i.e. مساکین (the needy) signifies those rendered motionless through want of means, e.g. the unemployed, or those possessing the ability to work but lacking the means thereof.
The words, those employed in connection therewith, signify those who are employed in collecting Zakah, or in keeping an account thereof or in the performance of any other duty connected therewith.
The words, whose hearts are to be reconciled, mean those whose hearts are sincerely inclined towards Islam but who, owing to their having become disconnected with their former society, stand in need of monetary help. The term extends to new converts also.
The word, slaves, signifies, besides actual slaves, captives and such persons as are called upon to pay blood money to secure their freedom.
The expression, for those in debt, means those who are unable to pay their debts or those who have suffered an extraordinary loss in trade, etc.
The words, for the cause of Allah, imply every good or pious work commanded by God.
The term ابن السبیل (the wayfarer) includes those stranded on a journey for lack of money; or those who travel in search of knowledge or for promoting social relations. See also 2:178. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ النَّبِیَّ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ہُوَ اُذُنٌ ؕ قُلۡ اُذُنُ خَیۡرٍ لَّکُمۡ یُؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ یُؤۡمِنُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ رَحۡمَۃٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۱﴾
وَمِنۡهُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡذُونَ ٱلنَّبِيَّ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٞۚ قُلۡ أُذُنُ خَيۡرٖ لَّكُمۡ يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَيُؤۡمِنُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَرَحۡمَةٞ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمۡۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡذُونَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ
1194. Udhun (lit. meaning an ear) signifies, one who listens to and believes in everything that is said to him. Of the many contemptuous and disparaging remarks that the Holy Prophet’s traducers made about him one was that he listened to and readily believed as true all reports that were conveyed to him so that he had become, as it were, the very organ of hearing. (close)
a. 9:128; 21:108. (close)
a. 9:128; 21:108. (close)
The hypocrites, by using the words, ھو اذن i.e. he gives ear to all, (lit. "he is all ear") with regard to the Holy Prophet, meant to say that he was always listening to the reports of his reporters and thus, by reason of the excess of this practice, he had become, as it were, the very organ of hearing. The verse replies to this taunt of the hypocrites by saying that the Prophet did indeed receive reports but this practice was essential for good administration; for if he who is in power does not keep himself well-informed, he cannot rule with justice.
Moreover, by using the words, is good for you, the verse hints that though the Prophet did listen to reports about the machinations of the hypocrites, he never punished them merely on the basis of these reports without first ascertaining whether they were true or false, and even when they proved to be true, he very often pardoned them. So, it was not right for them to taunt him for keeping himself informed of what went on around him. (close)
یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ لِیُرۡضُوۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ اَحَقُّ اَنۡ یُّرۡضُوۡہُ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا مُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۶۲﴾
يَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ لَكُمۡ لِيُرۡضُوكُمۡ وَٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥٓ أَحَقُّ أَن يُرۡضُوهُ إِن كَانُواْ مُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 9:96. (close)
a. 9:96. (close)
The hypocrites used to try to please influential Muslims by making pious professions of good faith. The verse exposes their real motives by saying that if they were really sincere in their professions, they ought to have first tried to please the Prophet, who was their Leader and Master. As they had never done so, their dishonesty was established; and Muslims were, therefore, warned to be ever on their guard against the wiles of the hypocrites and not to allow themselves to be deceived by their flattery. (close)
اَلَمۡ یَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّہٗ مَنۡ یُّحَادِدِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَاَنَّ لَہٗ نَارَ جَہَنَّمَ خَالِدًا فِیۡہَا ؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡخِزۡیُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ ﴿۶۳﴾
أَلَمۡ يَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّهُۥ مَن يُحَادِدِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ فَأَنَّ لَهُۥ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَٰلِدٗا فِيهَاۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡخِزۡيُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ
c. 58:6, 21. (close)
b. 58:6, 21. (close)
یَحۡذَرُ الۡمُنٰفِقُوۡنَ اَنۡ تُنَزَّلَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُوۡرَۃٌ تُنَبِّئُہُمۡ بِمَا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ قُلِ اسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡا ۚ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ مُخۡرِجٌ مَّا تَحۡذَرُوۡنَ ﴿۶۴﴾
يَحۡذَرُ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقُونَ أَن تُنَزَّلَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ سُورَةٞ تُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمۡۚ قُلِ ٱسۡتَهۡزِءُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُخۡرِجٞ مَّا تَحۡذَرُونَ
1195. The Hypocrites did not actually entertain any such fear because they did not believe the Holy Prophet to be the recipient of Divine revelation. The verse alludes only to the ironical nature of their jokes and jeers. (close)
The verse lifts the veil from the jokes the hypocrites used to indulge in at the cost of the Holy Prophet and the Muslims. When they sat together in private, they used to say jokingly to one another that they feared lest God should send down a Surah to the Prophet informing him of what lay concealed in their minds. They did not actually believe that the Holy Prophet might indeed receive revelation about their secret thoughts from God, because they did not believe him to be the recipient of Divine revelation. They only said this by way of ridicule, as the words that follow, i.e. Mock ye, indicate.
The words, Allah will bring to light what you fear, mean that whereas the hypocrites joked about the Holy Prophet in their secret meetings and affected to be afraid that he might be informed of those jokes by God, while in reality they entertained no such fears, the All-Knowing God would actually divulge their secrets to His Messenger and then the hypocrites would have real cause to experience their pretended apprehensions. (close)
وَ لَئِنۡ سَاَلۡتَہُمۡ لَیَقُوۡلُنَّ اِنَّمَا کُنَّا نَخُوۡضُ وَ نَلۡعَبُ ؕ قُلۡ اَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ کُنۡتُمۡ تَسۡتَہۡزِءُوۡنَ ﴿۶۵﴾
وَلَئِن سَأَلۡتَهُمۡ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلۡعَبُۚ قُلۡ أَبِٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ وَرَسُولِهِۦ كُنتُمۡ تَسۡتَهۡزِءُونَ
a. 2:45. (close)
a. 2:15. (close)
The verse signifies that if and when the hypocrites are asked why they make insulting remarks about the Prophet in their private meetings, they naively reply that they only diverted themselves with idle and playful discourse. The verse proceeds to rebuke them by asking whether they could get hold of nothing else than God and His Messenger to make the butt of their jokes and scoffing. (close)
لَا تَعۡتَذِرُوۡا قَدۡ کَفَرۡتُمۡ بَعۡدَ اِیۡمَانِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ نَّعۡفُ عَنۡ طَآئِفَۃٍ مِّنۡکُمۡ نُعَذِّبۡ طَآئِفَۃًۢ بِاَنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا مُجۡرِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۶۶﴾
لَا تَعۡتَذِرُواْ قَدۡ كَفَرۡتُم بَعۡدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمۡۚ إِن نَّعۡفُ عَن طَآئِفَةٖ مِّنكُمۡ نُعَذِّبۡ طَآئِفَةَۢ بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ مُجۡرِمِينَ
b. 56:8. (close)
b. 56:8. (close)
The words, You have certainly disbelieved after your believing, mean, "You expressed belief in God and His Messenger but practically you remained disbelievers;" or "You possessed some light of faith in you in the beginning but you allowed that light to become gradually extinguished."
The verse also hints that the hypocrites may yet repent and their repentance would be accepted; and history tells us that some of the hypocrites did actually repent and became sincere Muslims. (close)
اَلۡمُنٰفِقُوۡنَ وَ الۡمُنٰفِقٰتُ بَعۡضُہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡضٍ ۘ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡمُنۡکَرِ وَ یَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ یَقۡبِضُوۡنَ اَیۡدِیَہُمۡ ؕ نَسُوا اللّٰہَ فَنَسِیَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۶۷﴾
ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقُونَ وَٱلۡمُنَٰفِقَٰتُ بَعۡضُهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡضٖۚ يَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَقۡبِضُونَ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡۚ نَسُواْ ٱللَّهَ فَنَسِيَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
1196. Munafiq is from an-Nafaq which means, a hole or passage in the earth leading up to some place through an opening at the other end, and an-Nifaq means, entering faith through one door and leaving it through another (Aqrab). (close)
c. 59:20. (close)
1197. Nisyan generally meaning "forgetfulness" really means, one’s ceasing to think of a person or a thing either owing to loss of memory or negligence or doing it deliberately. When used about God the word means severing of His connection with a person by way of punishment or ceasing to think of him with feelings of love and affection (Mufradat). (close)
a. 59:20. (close)
1221. Important Words:
المنافقون (the hypocrites) is derived from نافق which is derived from نفق. They say نفق الشیء i.e. the thing became diminished; or it became spent up and perished. نفقت السلعة means, the merchandise was in much demand. نفقت السوق means, the market became brisk, its goods selling quickly. نفق الرجل means, the man expired. نفق الیربوع means, the rat came out of its hole in the earth. انفق ماله mean, he spent freely and constantly so as to reduce or exhaust his wealth. نافق فی المحبة means, he acted hypocritically in respect of love. نافق الرجل فی الدین means, the man concealed disbelief in the heart and expressed belief with his tongue. نافق الیربوع means, the rat known as yarbu‘ betook itself to its hole. النافقاء means, a hole in the earth having two open ends which the rat enters concealing one end and leaving the other exposed, so that in time of danger it may avail itself of the concealed end and escape through it. النفق means, a hole or passage through earth leading up to some place through an opening at the other end. النفاق means, entering faith through one door and leaving it through another; acting hypocritically. المنافق means, one who conceals disbelief in his heart and expresses belief with his tongue; a hypocrite (Aqrab, Taj & Mufradat). Though hypocrites have been mentioned in the Quran as early as in 2:9, the word منافق(hypocrite) has been first used in 4:62.
نسیھم (He has neglected them). نسیان generally meaning "forgetfulness", does not always signify the act of forgetting. Truly speaking, نسیان means, one’s ceasing to think of a person or a thing either owing to loss of memory or owing to negligence. The Quran says لا تنسوا الفضل بینکم i.e. do not cease (lit. do not forget) to do good to one another. In fact, when the word نسیان is used about God, it never means "forgetting" but simply cutting off connection by way of punishment or ceasing to think of a person with feelings of love and affection (Mufradat).
This verse mentions some of the signs by which hypocrites can be distinguished from true believers. These signs are: (1) that the hypocrites form a sort of inner society among themselves, shunning true believers and being inter-connected with one another; (2) that they enjoin evil; (3) that they forbid good; (4) that they do not spend in the cause of God, keeping their hands closed; (5) that they neglect Allah and His commandments; (6) that, as a consequence, God too neglects them and they do not enjoy Divine help in their works; and (7) that they are disobedient to God, always seeking to evade His behests. (close)