اِنَّمَا السَّبِیۡلُ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡنَکَ وَ ہُمۡ اَغۡنِیَآءُ ۚ رَضُوۡا بِاَنۡ یَّکُوۡنُوۡا مَعَ الۡخَوَالِفِ ۙ وَ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
۞إِنَّمَا ٱلسَّبِيلُ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُونَكَ وَهُمۡ أَغۡنِيَآءُۚ رَضُواْ بِأَن يَكُونُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡخَوَالِفِ وَطَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 9:79, 87. (close)
b. 6:26; 9:87; 63:4. (close)
a. 9:79, 87. (close)
1243. Important Words:
For an explanation of the words, Set seal upon their hearts, see 2:8 & 4:156. (close)
یَعۡتَذِرُوۡنَ اِلَیۡکُمۡ اِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ قُلۡ لَّا تَعۡتَذِرُوۡا لَنۡ نُّؤۡمِنَ لَکُمۡ قَدۡ نَبَّاَنَا اللّٰہُ مِنۡ اَخۡبَارِکُمۡ ؕ وَ سَیَرَی اللّٰہُ عَمَلَکُمۡ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عٰلِمِ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۴﴾
يَعۡتَذِرُونَ إِلَيۡكُمۡ إِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡ إِلَيۡهِمۡۚ قُل لَّا تَعۡتَذِرُواْ لَن نُّؤۡمِنَ لَكُمۡ قَدۡ نَبَّأَنَا ٱللَّهُ مِنۡ أَخۡبَارِكُمۡۚ وَسَيَرَى ٱللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمۡ وَرَسُولُهُۥ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَٰلِمِ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَٰدَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
1209. The verse was revealed when the Holy Prophet had not yet returned to Medina from his expedition to Tabuk. (close)
This verse was revealed when the Holy Prophet had not yet returned to Medina from his expedition to Tabuk. (close)
سَیَحۡلِفُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ لَکُمۡ اِذَا انۡقَلَبۡتُمۡ اِلَیۡہِمۡ لِتُعۡرِضُوۡا عَنۡہُمۡ ؕ فَاَعۡرِضُوۡا عَنۡہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہُمۡ رِجۡسٌ ۫ وَّ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ۚ جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿۹۵﴾
سَيَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ لَكُمۡ إِذَا ٱنقَلَبۡتُمۡ إِلَيۡهِمۡ لِتُعۡرِضُواْ عَنۡهُمۡۖ فَأَعۡرِضُواْ عَنۡهُمۡۖ إِنَّهُمۡ رِجۡسٞۖ وَمَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ
1210. As these 'stayers-behind' belonged to different categories, therefore they were treated differently. (close)
The words لتعرضوا عنھم (that you may leave them alone) mean, that you may pardon them and not call them to account, whereas the expression فاعرضوا عنھم (so leave them alone) means, turn yourselves away from them and have nothing to do with them. So the same word اعراض (leaving alone and turning away) has been used here in two different senses.
On his way back from Tabuk, one of those men, who had remained behind, met the Holy Prophet and offered excuses for not being able to go with him, but the Holy Prophet refused to listen to him. On the other hand, it is on record that in the case of some, he did accept their excuses on his return to Medina. This apparent disparity in the attitude of the Holy Prophet with regard to different persons may be explained by the fact that those who had stayed behind (hypocrites as well as believers) were of various types. The hypocrites were of three classes: (a) ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy and his party; (b) the hypocrites among the Arabs of the desert (9:90 above); and (c) the hypocrites who had built the Masjid Dirar with the intention of making it the centre of their activities against Islam (9:107 below). Similarly, the believers who had stayed behind were also of three classes: (1) those to whom the Quran has referred to in 9:91 above, i.e. the weak, the sick and the poor; (2) those who were not wholly inexcusable but who possessed no excuse valid enough to justify their staying behind (9:102 below); and (3) those who possessed no excuse at all. As these laggards belonged to different categories, therefore, they were treated differently. (close)
یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ لَکُمۡ لِتَرۡضَوۡا عَنۡہُمۡ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَرۡضَوۡا عَنۡہُمۡ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَرۡضٰی عَنِ الۡقَوۡمِ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
يَحۡلِفُونَ لَكُمۡ لِتَرۡضَوۡاْ عَنۡهُمۡۖ فَإِن تَرۡضَوۡاْ عَنۡهُمۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَرۡضَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡفَٰسِقِينَ
a. 9:62. (close)
a. 9:62. (close)
اَلۡاَعۡرَابُ اَشَدُّ کُفۡرًا وَّ نِفَاقًا وَّ اَجۡدَرُ اَلَّا یَعۡلَمُوۡا حُدُوۡدَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۷﴾
ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفۡرٗا وَنِفَاقٗا وَأَجۡدَرُ أَلَّا يَعۡلَمُواْ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
1246. Important Words:
اجدر (most apt) is derived from جدر which means, he or it was adapted, apt, suited, competent or worthy. They say جدرہ i.e. he made it or him adapted, apt, competent or worthy. One would say ما اجدرہ بالخیر i.e. how fit or suitable or adapted is he for what is good (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ مَغۡرَمًا وَّ یَتَرَبَّصُ بِکُمُ الدَّوَآئِرَ ؕ عَلَیۡہِمۡ دَآئِرَۃُ السَّوۡءِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۸﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ مَغۡرَمٗا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ ٱلدَّوَآئِرَۚ عَلَيۡهِمۡ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوۡءِۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٞ
b. 48:7. (close)
a. 48:7. (close)
1247. Important Words:
مغرما (fine) is the noun-infinitive from غرمwhich means, he paid or discharged a thing that had become obligatory upon him, e.g. a blood-wit; or he took upon himself to pay that which was not obligatory upon him; or he took upon himself to pay a fine, etc. They say غرم الدین i.e. he paid or discharged the debt. غرم فی تجارته means, he suffered a loss in his business. مغرمor غرامة means, a thing that must be paid or discharged; a damage or غرم loss that befalls a man; a debt; a fine or mulct (Lane & Aqrab).
الدوائر (calamities) and دائرة (calamity). See 5:53. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یُّؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ یَتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ قُرُبٰتٍ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ صَلَوٰتِ الرَّسُوۡلِ ؕ اَلَاۤ اِنَّہَا قُرۡبَۃٌ لَّہُمۡ ؕ سَیُدۡخِلُہُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ رَحۡمَتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۹۹﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مَن يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ قُرُبَٰتٍ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَصَلَوَٰتِ ٱلرَّسُولِۚ أَلَآ إِنَّهَا قُرۡبَةٞ لَّهُمۡۚ سَيُدۡخِلُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِي رَحۡمَتِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
1211. The Qur’an never indiscriminately condemns a whole people. The verse seeks to remove a possible misunderstanding that all Arabs of the desert were bad. (close)
1248. Important Words:
قربات (means of drawing near) is the plural of قربة which is the noun-infinitive from قرب i.e. he or it was or became near in place, station or rank. قربة therefore, means, nearness; a thing by which one seeks nearness to God or a thing by which one seeks to advance oneself in His favour (Lane).
The Quran is fair to all. As the Arabs of the desert were spoken of in 9:97, as being the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, this verse points out that all Arabs of the desert are not alike. Even among them are sincere believers who are ever striving to attain nearness to God. (close)
وَ السّٰبِقُوۡنَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ وَ الۡاَنۡصَارِ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡہُمۡ بِاِحۡسَانٍ ۙ رَّضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ رَضُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ تَحۡتَہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَٰنٖ رَّضِيَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي تَحۡتَهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ
a. 58:23; 98:9. (close)
1212. Incidentally, the verse constitutes a forcible refutation of the Shi‘ah accusations against the first three Successors of the Holy Prophet and his other prominent Companions. (close)
1249. Important Words:
السابقون (foremost) is the plural of السابق being derived from سبق. They say سبقه i.e. he got or went or came before him or ahead of him; he outstripped him in a race, etc. So سابق is one who outstrips others in faith and actions (Lane).
الاولون (the first) is the plural of الاول which is derived from وأل being the opposite of الآخر i.e. the last. اول means, the first; one preceding all others (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse mentions two distinctive qualifications of prominent believers: (1) السابقون i.e. those who are foremost in spiritual rank, outstripping others in faith and actions; and (2) الاولون i.e. those who are the first to believe, others only following them.
The Companions of the Holy Prophet are thus held up here as models for others, being both foremost in rank and the first to believe. Nay, even those, who sincerely followed in their footsteps, became the favoured ones of God. Incidentally, the verse also constitutes a forcible refutation of the Shia accusations against the first three Successors of the Holy Prophet and his prominent Companions. (close)
وَ مِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوۡنَ ؕۛ وَ مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ ۟ۛؔ مَرَدُوۡا عَلَی النِّفَاقِ ۟ لَا تَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُہُمۡ مَّرَّتَیۡنِ ثُمَّ یُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عَذَابٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۱﴾ۚ
وَمِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مُنَٰفِقُونَۖ وَمِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى ٱلنِّفَاقِ لَا تَعۡلَمُهُمۡۖ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُهُمۡۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيۡنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٖ
1213. The reference particularly is to the five tribes of the desert living near Medina—Juhainah, Muzainah, Ashja‘, Aslam and Ghifar (Ma‘ani. iii. 361). After the death of the Holy Prophet the Hypocrites from among these tribes gathered together and made a raid on Medina (Khaldun, ii. 66). (close)
1214. "Twice" may not refer to the form of punishment but to the period thereof which is explained in 9:126. The word may signify that the Hypocrites would be punished in a period ranging from one to two years, i.e. if the punishment comes twice a year, they will have it in one year; if it comes once, they will have it in two years. (close)
1250. Important Words:
مردوا (persist) is from مرد (marada) which means, he exalted himself; he was insolent and audacious in pride and in acts of disobedience; he was excessively proud or disobedient or rebellious; he was refractory; or he outstripped others in pride or disobedience. They say مرد علی شیء i.e. he became accustomed or inured to a thing and persisted in it. The expression مردوا علی النفاق means, they have become accustomed or inured to hypocrisy and persist in it; or they have become insolent and audacious in hypocrisy. تمرد has about the same meaning. مرد(marida) with different vowel point at the central letter, means, it (a tree, etc.) was or became destitute of leaves (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in the opening part of this verse is particularly to the five tribes of the desert living near Medina, viz. Juhainah, Muzainah, Ashja‘, Aslam and Ghifar (Ma‘ani, vol. iii. p. 361). After the death of the Holy Prophet, the hypocrites from among the neighbouring tribes gathered together and made a raid on Medina (Khaldun, ii. 66).
The word "twice" occurring in the sentence, We will punish them twice, does not refer to the form of punishment, but to the period thereof which is explained in 9:126 below, where the Quran says, do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice? Thus, the word "twice" occurring in the present verse signifies that the hypocrites would be punished in a period ranging from one to two years, i.e. if the punishment comes twice a year, they will have it in one year; if it comes once, they will have it in two years. (close)
وَ اٰخَرُوۡنَ اعۡتَرَفُوۡا بِذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ خَلَطُوۡا عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَّ اٰخَرَ سَیِّئًا ؕ عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۲﴾
وَءَاخَرُونَ ٱعۡتَرَفُواْ بِذُنُوبِهِمۡ خَلَطُواْ عَمَلٗا صَٰلِحٗا وَءَاخَرَ سَيِّئًا عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٌ
1215. The verse may refer to those Muslims who did possess an excuse, but it was not strong enough to justify their staying behind. Their number, according to different reports, varied from seven to ten. As a self-inflicted punishment for their offence, these men bound themselves to the pillars of the Mosque at Medina, and when the Holy Prophet entered it to offer Prayers, they begged him to pardon them to which he replied that he could not do so unless so commanded by God. When this verse was revealed, they were ordered to be released. (close)
The verse refers to those Muslims who did possess an excuse, but it was not strong enough to justify their staying behind (see note on 9:95 above). Their number, according to different reports, varied from seven to ten. As a self-inflicted punishment for their offence, these men bound themselves to the pillars of the Mosque at Medina, and when the Holy Prophet entered it to offer Prayers, they begged him to pardon them, to which he replied that he could not do it unless so commanded by God. When, however, this verse was revealed, they were ordered to be released. (close)