اَلۡاَعۡرَابُ اَشَدُّ کُفۡرًا وَّ نِفَاقًا وَّ اَجۡدَرُ اَلَّا یَعۡلَمُوۡا حُدُوۡدَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۷﴾
ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفۡرٗا وَنِفَاقٗا وَأَجۡدَرُ أَلَّا يَعۡلَمُواْ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
1246. Important Words:
اجدر (most apt) is derived from جدر which means, he or it was adapted, apt, suited, competent or worthy. They say جدرہ i.e. he made it or him adapted, apt, competent or worthy. One would say ما اجدرہ بالخیر i.e. how fit or suitable or adapted is he for what is good (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ مَغۡرَمًا وَّ یَتَرَبَّصُ بِکُمُ الدَّوَآئِرَ ؕ عَلَیۡہِمۡ دَآئِرَۃُ السَّوۡءِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۹۸﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ مَغۡرَمٗا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ ٱلدَّوَآئِرَۚ عَلَيۡهِمۡ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوۡءِۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٞ
b. 48:7. (close)
a. 48:7. (close)
1247. Important Words:
مغرما (fine) is the noun-infinitive from غرمwhich means, he paid or discharged a thing that had become obligatory upon him, e.g. a blood-wit; or he took upon himself to pay that which was not obligatory upon him; or he took upon himself to pay a fine, etc. They say غرم الدین i.e. he paid or discharged the debt. غرم فی تجارته means, he suffered a loss in his business. مغرمor غرامة means, a thing that must be paid or discharged; a damage or غرم loss that befalls a man; a debt; a fine or mulct (Lane & Aqrab).
الدوائر (calamities) and دائرة (calamity). See 5:53. (close)
وَ مِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ یُّؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ یَتَّخِذُ مَا یُنۡفِقُ قُرُبٰتٍ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ صَلَوٰتِ الرَّسُوۡلِ ؕ اَلَاۤ اِنَّہَا قُرۡبَۃٌ لَّہُمۡ ؕ سَیُدۡخِلُہُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ رَحۡمَتِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۹۹﴾
وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مَن يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ قُرُبَٰتٍ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَصَلَوَٰتِ ٱلرَّسُولِۚ أَلَآ إِنَّهَا قُرۡبَةٞ لَّهُمۡۚ سَيُدۡخِلُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِي رَحۡمَتِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
1211. The Qur’an never indiscriminately condemns a whole people. The verse seeks to remove a possible misunderstanding that all Arabs of the desert were bad. (close)
1248. Important Words:
قربات (means of drawing near) is the plural of قربة which is the noun-infinitive from قرب i.e. he or it was or became near in place, station or rank. قربة therefore, means, nearness; a thing by which one seeks nearness to God or a thing by which one seeks to advance oneself in His favour (Lane).
The Quran is fair to all. As the Arabs of the desert were spoken of in 9:97, as being the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, this verse points out that all Arabs of the desert are not alike. Even among them are sincere believers who are ever striving to attain nearness to God. (close)
وَ السّٰبِقُوۡنَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ وَ الۡاَنۡصَارِ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡہُمۡ بِاِحۡسَانٍ ۙ رَّضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ رَضُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ تَحۡتَہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ ذٰلِکَ الۡفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِیۡمُ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَٰنٖ رَّضِيَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي تَحۡتَهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدٗاۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ
a. 58:23; 98:9. (close)
1212. Incidentally, the verse constitutes a forcible refutation of the Shi‘ah accusations against the first three Successors of the Holy Prophet and his other prominent Companions. (close)
1249. Important Words:
السابقون (foremost) is the plural of السابق being derived from سبق. They say سبقه i.e. he got or went or came before him or ahead of him; he outstripped him in a race, etc. So سابق is one who outstrips others in faith and actions (Lane).
الاولون (the first) is the plural of الاول which is derived from وأل being the opposite of الآخر i.e. the last. اول means, the first; one preceding all others (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse mentions two distinctive qualifications of prominent believers: (1) السابقون i.e. those who are foremost in spiritual rank, outstripping others in faith and actions; and (2) الاولون i.e. those who are the first to believe, others only following them.
The Companions of the Holy Prophet are thus held up here as models for others, being both foremost in rank and the first to believe. Nay, even those, who sincerely followed in their footsteps, became the favoured ones of God. Incidentally, the verse also constitutes a forcible refutation of the Shia accusations against the first three Successors of the Holy Prophet and his prominent Companions. (close)
وَ مِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوۡنَ ؕۛ وَ مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡمَدِیۡنَۃِ ۟ۛؔ مَرَدُوۡا عَلَی النِّفَاقِ ۟ لَا تَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُہُمۡ ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُہُمۡ مَّرَّتَیۡنِ ثُمَّ یُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عَذَابٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۱﴾ۚ
وَمِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ مُنَٰفِقُونَۖ وَمِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى ٱلنِّفَاقِ لَا تَعۡلَمُهُمۡۖ نَحۡنُ نَعۡلَمُهُمۡۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيۡنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٖ
1213. The reference particularly is to the five tribes of the desert living near Medina—Juhainah, Muzainah, Ashja‘, Aslam and Ghifar (Ma‘ani. iii. 361). After the death of the Holy Prophet the Hypocrites from among these tribes gathered together and made a raid on Medina (Khaldun, ii. 66). (close)
1214. "Twice" may not refer to the form of punishment but to the period thereof which is explained in 9:126. The word may signify that the Hypocrites would be punished in a period ranging from one to two years, i.e. if the punishment comes twice a year, they will have it in one year; if it comes once, they will have it in two years. (close)
1250. Important Words:
مردوا (persist) is from مرد (marada) which means, he exalted himself; he was insolent and audacious in pride and in acts of disobedience; he was excessively proud or disobedient or rebellious; he was refractory; or he outstripped others in pride or disobedience. They say مرد علی شیء i.e. he became accustomed or inured to a thing and persisted in it. The expression مردوا علی النفاق means, they have become accustomed or inured to hypocrisy and persist in it; or they have become insolent and audacious in hypocrisy. تمرد has about the same meaning. مرد(marida) with different vowel point at the central letter, means, it (a tree, etc.) was or became destitute of leaves (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in the opening part of this verse is particularly to the five tribes of the desert living near Medina, viz. Juhainah, Muzainah, Ashja‘, Aslam and Ghifar (Ma‘ani, vol. iii. p. 361). After the death of the Holy Prophet, the hypocrites from among the neighbouring tribes gathered together and made a raid on Medina (Khaldun, ii. 66).
The word "twice" occurring in the sentence, We will punish them twice, does not refer to the form of punishment, but to the period thereof which is explained in 9:126 below, where the Quran says, do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice? Thus, the word "twice" occurring in the present verse signifies that the hypocrites would be punished in a period ranging from one to two years, i.e. if the punishment comes twice a year, they will have it in one year; if it comes once, they will have it in two years. (close)
وَ اٰخَرُوۡنَ اعۡتَرَفُوۡا بِذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ خَلَطُوۡا عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَّ اٰخَرَ سَیِّئًا ؕ عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۲﴾
وَءَاخَرُونَ ٱعۡتَرَفُواْ بِذُنُوبِهِمۡ خَلَطُواْ عَمَلٗا صَٰلِحٗا وَءَاخَرَ سَيِّئًا عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٌ
1215. The verse may refer to those Muslims who did possess an excuse, but it was not strong enough to justify their staying behind. Their number, according to different reports, varied from seven to ten. As a self-inflicted punishment for their offence, these men bound themselves to the pillars of the Mosque at Medina, and when the Holy Prophet entered it to offer Prayers, they begged him to pardon them to which he replied that he could not do so unless so commanded by God. When this verse was revealed, they were ordered to be released. (close)
The verse refers to those Muslims who did possess an excuse, but it was not strong enough to justify their staying behind (see note on 9:95 above). Their number, according to different reports, varied from seven to ten. As a self-inflicted punishment for their offence, these men bound themselves to the pillars of the Mosque at Medina, and when the Holy Prophet entered it to offer Prayers, they begged him to pardon them, to which he replied that he could not do it unless so commanded by God. When, however, this verse was revealed, they were ordered to be released. (close)
خُذۡ مِنۡ اَمۡوَالِہِمۡ صَدَقَۃً تُطَہِّرُہُمۡ وَ تُزَکِّیۡہِمۡ بِہَا وَ صَلِّ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ صَلٰوتَکَ سَکَنٌ لَّہُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۳﴾
خُذۡ مِنۡ أَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ صَدَقَةٗ تُطَهِّرُهُمۡ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيۡهِمۡۖ إِنَّ صَلَوٰتَكَ سَكَنٞ لَّهُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
The persons referred to in the preceding verse brought a part of their property and begged the Holy Prophet to take the same as alms, but he told them that he had no instructions to accept anything from them, whereupon this verse was revealed, allowing him to accept their alms and to pray for them. (close)
اَلَمۡ یَعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ یَقۡبَلُ التَّوۡبَۃَ عَنۡ عِبَادِہٖ وَ یَاۡخُذُ الصَّدَقٰتِ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ ہُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿۱۰۴﴾
أَلَمۡ يَعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ يَقۡبَلُ ٱلتَّوۡبَةَ عَنۡ عِبَادِهِۦ وَيَأۡخُذُ ٱلصَّدَقَٰتِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
a. 42:26. (close)
The repentant Muslims are here told that the right course for them was to have become God’s true worshippers, for it is only the righteous servants of God who are entitled to forgiveness and mercy. (close)
وَ قُلِ اعۡمَلُوۡا فَسَیَرَی اللّٰہُ عَمَلَکُمۡ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ؕ وَ سَتُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰی عٰلِمِ الۡغَیۡبِ وَ الشَّہَادَۃِ فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۵﴾ۚ
وَقُلِ ٱعۡمَلُواْ فَسَيَرَى ٱللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمۡ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَۖ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَٰلِمِ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَٰدَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 9:94. (close)
b. 9:94. (close)
Though the party of Muslims referred to in the preceding verses repented and their repentance was accepted, yet they are here told that repentance cannot be complete unless one shows by one’s later actions, that one has really and truly reformed oneself. These men are, therefore, warned in this verse that their future actions would be particularly watched. (close)
وَ اٰخَرُوۡنَ مُرۡجَوۡنَ لِاَمۡرِ اللّٰہِ اِمَّا یُعَذِّبُہُمۡ وَ اِمَّا یَتُوۡبُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۶﴾
وَءَاخَرُونَ مُرۡجَوۡنَ لِأَمۡرِ ٱللَّهِ إِمَّا يُعَذِّبُهُمۡ وَإِمَّا يَتُوبُ عَلَيۡهِمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
b. 9:118. (close)
1216. They were Hilal Ibn-e-Umayyah, Murarah Ibn-e-Rabi‘ah and Ka‘b Ibn-e-Malik. The Holy Prophet deferred pronouncing his decision regarding them in obedience to Divine command (Bukhari). (close)
1255. Important Words:
مرجون (whose case has been postponed) is derived from ارجاء which again is derived from رجأ. They say ارجاء الامر i.e. he postponed, put off or delayed the affair. مرجون(which is really مرجئون) means, those who have been delayed or put off or postponed, i.e. the consideration of whose case has been postponed or deferred (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference here is to yet another party which consisted of three Medinite Muslims, Hilal, Murarah and Ka‘b. The Holy Prophet deferred pronouncing his decision regarding them. This he did to keep them in a state of suspense for sometime. The feeling of extreme uneasiness caused by the state of suspense served as a sort of atonement for their remissness and they were subsequently pardoned (see 9:118 below). In the meantime, the Quran proceeds to speak of other people. (close)