In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.
Love for All, Hatred for None.
By Prof K. S. Ramakrishna Rao
Head of the Department of Philosophy
When I thought of writing on Mohammad the prophet, I was a bit hesitant because it was to write about a religion I do not profess and it is a delicate matter to do so for there are many persons professing various religions and belonging to diverse schools of thought and denominations even in the same religion. Though it is sometimes, claimed that religion is entirely personal yet it cannot be gainsaid that it has a tendency to envelop the whole universe seen as well as unseen. It somehow permeates something or other our hearts, our souls, our minds, their conscious as well as subconscious and unconscious levels too. The problem assumes overwhelming importance when there is a deep conviction that our past, present and future all hang by the soft delicate, tender silken cord. If we further happen to be highly sensitive, the centre of gravity is very likely to be always in a state of extreme tension. Looked at from this point of view, the less said about other religions the better. Let our religion be deeply hidden and embedded in the resistance of our innermost hearts fortified by unbroken seals on our lips.
But there is another aspect of this problem. Man lives in society.
Our lives are bound with the lives of others willingly or unwillingly, directly or indirectly. We eat the food grown in the same soil, drink water, from the same spring and breathe the same air. Even while staunchly holding our own views, it would be helpful, if we try to adjust ourselves to our surroundings, if we also know to some extent, how the mind of our neighbor moves and what the main springs of his actions are. From this angle of vision it is highly desirable that one should try to know all religions of the world, in the proper spirit, to promote mutual understanding and better appreciation of our neighborhood, immediate and remote.
Further, our thoughts are not scattered as appear to be on the surface. They have got themselves crystallized around a few nuclei in the form of great world religions and living faiths that guide and motivate the lives of millions that inhabit this earth of ours. It is our duty, in one sense if we have the ideal of ever becoming a citizen of the world before us, to make a little attempt to know the great religions and systems of philosophy that have ruled mankind.
In spite of these preliminary remarks, the ground in the field of religion, where there is often a conflict between intellect and emotion is so slippery that one is constantly reminded of `fools that rush in where angels fear to tread.' It is also not so complex from another point of view. The subject of my writing is about the tenets of a religion which is historic and its prophet who is also a historic personality. Even a hostile critic like Sir William Muir speaking about the Holy Quran says that, "There is probably in the world no other book which has remained twelve centuries with so pure text." I may also add Prophet Mohammad is also a historic personality, every event of whose life has been most carefully recorded and even the minutest details preserved intact for posterity. His life and works are not wrapped in mystery.
today is further lightened because those days are fast disappearing when Islam
was highly misrepresented by some of its critics for reasons political and otherwise.
Professor Bevan writes in Cambridge Medieval History, "Those accounts of
Mohammad and Islam which were published in
The theory of Islam and the Sword for instance is not heard now frequently in any quarter worth the name. The principle of Islam that there is no compulsion in religion is well known. Gibbon, a historian of world repute says, "A pernicious tenet has been imputed to Mohammedans, the duty of extirpating all the religions by sword". This charge based on ignorance and bigotry, says the eminent historian, is refuted by Quran, by history of Musalman conquerors and by their public and legal toleration of Christian worship. The great success of Mohammad's life had been effected by sheer moral force, without a stroke of the sword.
pure self‑defense, after repeated efforts of conciliation had utterly
failed, circumstances dragged him into the battlefield. But the prophet of Islam
changed the whole strategy of the battlefield. The total number of casualties
in all the wars that took place during his lifetime when the whole
A party had to be engaged in bowing their heads
before God while the other was engaged with the enemy. After finishing the prayers,
the two parties had to exchange positions. To the Arabs, who had fought for
forty years on the slight provocation that a camel belonging to the guest of
one tribe had strayed into the grazing land belonging to another tribe and both
sides had fought till 70,000 lives had been lost; threatening the extinction
of both the tribes, to such furious Arabs the Prophet of Islam taught self‑control
and discipline to the extent of praying even on the battlefield. In an age of
barbarism, the battlefield itself was humanized and strict instructions were
issued not to cheat, not to break trust, not to mutilate, not to kill a child
or woman or an old man, not to hew down date palm nor to burn it, not to cut
a fruit tree, not molest any person engaged in worship. His own treatment with
his bitterest enemies is the noblest example for his followers. At the conquest
The principles of universal brotherhood and doctrine of the equality of mankind which he proclaimed presents one very great contribution of Mohammad to the social uplift of humanity. All great religions have preached the same doctrine but the prophet of Islam had put this theory into actual practice and its value will be fully recognized, perhaps centuries hence, when international consciousness being awakened, racial prejudices may disappear and greater brotherhood of humanity come into existence.
Naidu speaking about this aspect of Islam says, "It was the first religion
that preached and practiced democracy; for in the mosque, when the azan is sounded
and the worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied
five times a day when the peasant and the king kneel side by side and proclaim,
"God alone is great." The great poetess of
Gandhi, in his inimitable style, says "Some one has said that Europeans
year, during the Hajj, the world witnesses the wonderful spectacle of this international
Exhibition of Islam in leveling all distinctions of race, color and rank. Not
only the Europeans but the Africans, the Arabians, the Persians, the Indians,
the Chinese all meet together in
In the opinion of Professor Hurgronfe
"the league of nations founded by the prophet of Islam put the principle
of international unity of human brotherhood on such universal foundations as
to show candle to other nations." In the words of the same professor, "the
fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done
to the realization of the idea of the
of Islam brought the reign of democracy in its best form. The Caliph Umar, the
Caliph Ali, the son‑in‑law of the prophet, the Caliph Mansur, Abbas,
the son of Caliph Mamun and many other Caliphs and Kings had to appear before
the judge as ordinary men in Islamic courts. Even today we all know how the
"O mankind, surely we have created you, families and tribes, so you may know one another. Surely, the most honorable of you with God is the most righteous among you. Surely, God is Knowing, Aware."
And these words of the holy Quran created such
a mighty transformation that the Caliph of Islam, the purest of Arabs by birth,
offered their daughter in marriage to this negro slave, and whenever the second
Caliph of Islam, known to history as Umar the great, the commander of faithful,
saw this Negro slave, he immediately stood in reverence and welcomed him by
"Here comes our master; Here comes our lord." What a tremendous change
was brought by Quran in the Arabs, the proudest people at that time on the earth.
This is the reason why Goethe, the greatest of German poets, speaking about
the holy Quran declared that, "This book will go on exercising through
all ages a most potent influence." This is also the reason why George Bernard
Shaw says, "If any religion has a chance of ruling over
It is this same democratic spirit of Islam that emancipated women from the bondage of man. Sir Charles Edward Archibald Hamilton says "Islam teaches the inherent sinless ness of man. It teaches that man and woman have come from the same essence, possess the same soul and have been equipped with equal capabilities for intellectual, spiritual and moral attainments."
had a very strong tradition that one who can smite with the spear and can wield
the sword would inherit. But Islam came as the defender of the weaker sex and
entitled women to share the inheritance of their parents. It gave women, centuries
ago, the right of owning property, yet it was 12 centuries later in 1881 that
Islam is not directly concerned with political and economic systems, but indirectly and in so far as political and economic affairs influence man's conduct, it does lay down some very important principles to govern economic life. According to Professor Massignon, it maintains the balance between exaggerated opposites and has always in view the building of character which is the basis of civilization. This is secured by its law of inheritance, by an organized system of charity known as Zakat and by regarding as illegal all anti‑social practices in the economic field like monopoly, usury, securing of predetermined unearned income and increments, cornering markets, creating monopolies, creating an artificial scarcity of any commodity in order to force the prices to rise. Gambling is illegal. Contribution to schools, to places of worship, hospitals, digging of wells, opening of orphanages are highest acts of virtue. Orphanages have sprung for the first time, it is said, under the teaching of the prophet of Islam. The world owes its orphanages to this prophet who was himself born an orphan. "Good all this" says Carlyle about Mohammad. "The natural voice of humanity, of piety and equity, dwelling in the heart of this wild son of nature, speaks."
A historian once said a great man should be judged by three tests: Was he found to be of true metal by his contemporaries? Was he great enough to raise above the standards of his age? Did he leave anything as permanent legacy to the world at large? This list may be further extended but all these three tests of greatness are eminently satisfied to the highest degree in the case of Prophet Mohammad. Some illustrations of the last two have already been mentioned.
The first is: Was the Prophet of Islam found to be of true metal by his contemporaries?
Historical records show that all the contemporaries of Mohammad both friends and foes, acknowledged the sterling qualities, the spotless honesty, the noble virtues, the absolute sincerity and every trustworthiness of the apostle of Islam in all walks of life and in every sphere of human activity. Even the Jews and those who did not believe in his message, adopted him as the arbiter in their personal disputes by virtue of his perfect impartiality. Even those who did not believe in his message were forced to say "O Mohammad, we do not call you a liar, but we deny him who has given you a book and inspired you with a message." They thought he was one possessed. They tried violence to cure him. But the best of them saw a new light had dawned on him and they hastened to him to seek the enlightenment. It is a notable feature in the history of prophet of Islam that his nearest relation, his beloved cousin and his bosom friends, who knew him most intimately, were thoroughly imbued with the truth of his mission and were convinced of the genuineness of his divine inspiration. If these men and women, noble, intelligent, educated and intimately acquainted with his private life had perceived the slightest signs of deception, fraud, earthliness, or lack of faith in him, Mohammad's moral hope of regeneration, spiritual awakening and social reform would all have been foredoomed to a failure and the whole edifice would have crumbled to pieces in a moment. On the contrary, we find that the devotion of his followers was such that he was voluntarily acknowledged as dictator of their lives. They braved for him persecutions and danger; they trusted, obeyed and honored him even in the most excruciating torture and severest mental agony caused by excommunication even unto death. Would this have been so, had they noticed the slightest backsliding in their master?
Read the history of the early converts to Islam and every heart would melt at the sight of the brutal treatment of innocent Muslim men and women.
Sumayya, an innocent woman, is cruelly torn into pieces with spears. An example is made of "Yassir whose legs are tied to two camels and the beasts were driven in opposite directions", Khabbab bin Arth is made to lie down on a bed of burning coal with the brutal legs of their merciless tyrant on his breast so that he may not move and this makes even the fat beneath his skin melt." Khabban bin Adi is put to death in a cruel manner by mutilation and cutting off his flesh piecemeal." In the midst of his tortures, being asked whether he did not wish Mohammad in his place while he was in his house with his family, the sufferer cried out that he was gladly prepared to sacrifice himself, his family and children and why was it that these sons and daughters of Islam not only surrendered to their Prophet their allegiance but also made a gift of their hearts and souls to their master? Is not the intense faith and conviction on the part of the immediate followers of Mohammad, the noblest testimony to his sincerity and to his utter self-absorption in his appointed task?
men were not of low station or inferior mental caliber. Around him in quite
early days, gathered what was best and noblest in
The encyclopedia Britannica says that "Mohammad is the most successful of all Prophets and religious personalities". But the success was not the result of mere accident. It was not a hit of fortune. It was a recognition of fact that he was found to be of true metal by his contemporaries. It was the result of his admirable and all compelling personality. The personality of Mohammad! It is most difficult to get into the truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch. What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes. There is Mohammed, the Prophet; There is Mohammad the General; Mohammad the King; Mohammad the Warrior; Mohammad the Businessman; Mohammad the Preacher; Mohammad the Philosopher; Mohammad the Statesman; Mohammad the Orator; Mohammad the Reformer; Mohammad the Refuge of Orphans; Mohammad the Protector of Slaves; Mohammad the Emancipator of Women; Mohammad the Law‑giver; Mohammad the Judge; Mohammad the Saint. And in all these magnificent roles, in all these departments of human activities, he is like a hero.
Orphan hood is extreme helplessness and his life upon this earth began with it; Kingship is the height of material power and it ended with it. From an orphan boy to a persecuted refugee and then to an overlord, spiritual as well as temporal, of a whole nation and Arbiter of its destinies, with all its trials and temptations, with all its vicissitudes and changes, its lights and shades, its ups and downs, its terror and splendor, he has stood the fire of the world and came out unscathed to serve as a model in every face of life. His achievements are not limited to one aspect of life but cover the whole field of human conditions.
If for instance, greatness consists in the purification of a nation, steeped in barbarism and immersed in absolute moral darkness, that dynamic personality, who has transformed, refined and uplifted an entire nation, sunk low as the Arabs were and made them the torch‑bearers of civilization and learning, has every claim to greatness. If greatness lies in unifying the discordant elements of society by ties of brotherhood and charity, the prophet of the desert has got every title to this distinction. If greatness consists in reforming those wrapped in degrading and blind superstition and pernicious practices of every kind, the prophet of Warn has wiped out superstitions and irrational fear from the hearts of millions. If it lies in displaying high morals, Mohammad has been admitted by friend and foe as A] Amin, or the faithful. If a conqueror is a great man, here is a person who rose from helpless orphan and an humble creature to be the ruler of Arabia, the equal to Chosroes and Caesers' one who founded a great empire that has survived all these 14 centuries, If the devotion that a leader commands is the criterion of greatness, the prophet's name even today exerts a magic charm over millions of souls spread all over the world.
not studied philosophy in the
In the person of the Prophet of Islam the world has seen this rarest phenomenon walking on the earth, walking in flesh and blood.
And more wonderful still is what the Reverend Bosworth Smith remarks, "Head of the State as well as the Church, he was Caeser and Pope in one; but he was Pope without the Pope's claims and Caeser without the legions of Caeser, without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue. If ever any man had a right to say that he ruled by a divine right it was Mohammad, for he had all the power without instruments and without its support. He cared not for the dressing of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life.
After the fall of
Circumstances changed, but the prophet of God did not. In victory or in defeat, in power or in adversity, in affluence or in indigence, he is the same man, disclosed the same character. Like all the ways and laws of God, Prophets of God are unchangeable.
An honest man, as the saying goes, is the noblest work of God, Mohammad was more than honest. He was human to the marrow of his bones. Human sympathy, human love was the music of his soul. To serve man, to elevate man, to purify man, to educate man, in a word to humanize man‑this was the object of his mission, the be‑all and end all of his life. In thought, in word, in action he had the good of humanity as his sole inspiration, his sole guiding principle.
He was most unostentatious and selfless to the core. What were the titles he assumed? Only true servant of God and His Messenger. Servant first, and then a messenger. A Messenger and prophet like many other prophets in every part of the world, some known to you, many not known to you. If one does not believe in any of these truths one ceases to be a Muslim. It is an article of faith.
"Looking at the circumstances of the time
and unbounded reverence of his followers" says a western writer "the
most miraculous thing about Mohammad is, that he never claimed the power of
working miracles". Miracles were performed but not to propagate his faith
and were attributed entirely to God and his inscrutable ways. He would plainly
say that he was a man like others. He had no treasures of earth or heaven. Nor
did he claim to know the secrets of that lie in womb of future. All this was
in an age when miracles were supposed to be ordinary occurrences, at the back
and call of the commonest saint, when the whole atmosphere was surcharged with
He turned the attention of his followers towards
the study of nature and its laws, to understand them and appreciate the Glory
of God. The Quran says "God did not create the heavens and the earth and
all that is between them in play. He did not create them all but with truth.
But most men do not know". The world is not illusion, nor without purpose.
It has been created with the truth. The number of verses inviting
close observation of nature are several times more than those that relate
to prayer, fasting, pilgrimage etc. all put together. The Muslim under its influence
began to observe nature closely and this give birth to the scientific spirit of the observation
and experiment which was unknown to the Greeks. While the Muslim Botanist Ibn
Baitar wrote on Botany after collecting plants from all parts of the world,
described by Myer in his Gesch. Der Botanikaa‑s, a monument of industry,
while Al Byruni traveled for forty years to collect mineralogical specimens, and Muslim Astronomers made some observations extending
even over twelve years. Aristotle wrote on Physics without performing a single
experiment, wrote on natural history, carelessly stating without taking the
trouble to ascertain the most verifiable fact that men have more teeth than
animal. Galen, the greatest authority on classical anatomy informed that the
lower jaw consists of two bones, a statement which is accepted unchallenged
for centuries till Abdul Lateef takes the trouble to examine a human skeleton.
After enumerating several such instances, Robert Priffault concludes in his
well known book "The making of humanity", "The debt of our science
to the Arabs does not consist in starting discoveries or revolutionary theories.
Science owes a great more to Arabs culture; it owes is existence". The
same writer says "The Greeks systematized, generalized and theorized but
patient ways to investigation, the accumulation of positive knowledge, the minute
methods of science, detailed and prolonged observation, experimental inquiry,
were altogether alien to Greek temperament. What we call science arose in
It is the same practical character of the teaching of Prophet Mohammad that gave birth to the scientific spirit, that has also sanctified the daily labors and the so called mundane affairs. The Quran says that God has created man to worship him but the word worship has a connotation of its own. God's worship is not confined to prayer alone, but every act that is done with the purpose of winning approval of God and is for the benefit of the humanity comes under its purview. Islam sanctifies life and all its pursuits provided they were performed with honesty, justice and pure intents. It obliterates the age‑long distinction between the sacred and profane. The Quran says if you eat clean things and thank God for it, it is an act of worship. It is saying of the prophet of Islam that Morsel of food that one places in the mouth of his wife is an act or virtue to be rewarded by God. Another tradition of the Prophet says "He who is satisfying the desire of his heart will be rewarded by God provided the methods adopted are permissible. A person was listening to him exclaimed `O Prophet of God, he is answering the calls of passions, is only satisfying the craving of his heart. Forthwith came the reply, "Had he adopted an awful method for the satisfaction of his urge, he would have been punished; then why should he not be rewarded for following the right course".
This new conception of religion that it should also devote itself to the betterment of this life rather than concern itself exclusively with super mundane affairs, has led to a new orientation of moral values. Its abiding influence on the common relations of mankind in the affairs of every day life, its deep power over the masses, its regulation of their conception of rights and duty, its suitability and adaptability to the ignorant savage and the wise philosopher are characteristic features of the teaching of the Prophet of Islam.
But it should be most carefully born in mind this stress on good is not with the sacrifice of correctness of faith. While there are various schools of thought, one praising faith at the expense of deeds, another exhausting various acts to the detriment of correct belief, Islam is based on correct faith and righteous actions. Means are as important as the end and ends are as important as the Means. It is an organic Unity. Together they live and thrive. Separate them and both decay and die. In Islam faith can not be divorced from the action. Right knowledge should be transformed into right action to produce the right results. How often the words came in Quran‑‑ Those who believe and do good thing, they alone shall enter paradise. Again and again, not less than fifty times these words are repeated as if too much stress cannot be laid on them. Contemplation is encouraged but mere contemplation is not the goal. Thos who believe and do nothing cannot exist in Islam. These who believe and do wrong are inconceivable. Divine law is the law of effort and not of ideals. It Chalks out for the men the path eternal progress from knowledge to action and from action to satisfaction.
But what is the correct faith from which right action spontaneously proceeds resulting in complete satisfaction. Here the central doctrine of Islam is the Unity of God. There is no God but God is the pivot from which hangs the whole teaching and practice of Islam. He is unique not only as regards His divine being but also as regards His divine attributes.
As regards the attributes of God, Islam adopts here as in other things too, the law of golden mean. It avoids on the one hand, the view of God which divests the divine being of every attribute and rejects, on the other, the view which likens Him to things material. The Quran says, On the one hand, there is nothing which is like Him, on the other, it affirms that He is Seeing, Hearing, Knowing. He is the King Who is without a stain of fault or deficiency, the mighty ship of His power floats upon the ocean of justice and equity. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. He is the Guardian over all. Islam does not stop with this positive statement. It adds further which is its most special characteristic, the negative aspects of problem. There is also no one else who is guardian over everything. He is the meander or every breakage, and no one else is the meander of any breakage. He is the restorer of every loss and no one else is the restorer of any loss what‑so ever. There is no God but one God, above any need, the maker of bodies, creator or souls, the Lord of the day of judgment, and in short, in the words of Quran, to him belong all excellent qualities.
Regarding the position of man in relation to the Universe, the Quran says "God has made subservient to you whatever is on the earth or in the universe. You are destined to rule over the Universe". But in relation to God, the Quran says `O man God has bestowed on you excellent faculties and has created life and death to put you to test in order to see whose actions are good and who has deviated from the right path.'
In spite of free will which he enjoys, to some extent, every man is born under certain circumstances and continues to live under certain circumstances beyond his control. With regard to this God says, according to Islam, it is my will to create any man under conditions that seem best to me. Cosmic plans finite mortals cannot fully comprehend.
But I will certainly test you in prosperity as well in adversity, in health as well as in sickness, in heights as well as in depths. My ways of testing differ from man to man, from hour to hour. In adversity do not despair and do resort to unlawful means. It is but a passing phase. In prosperity do not forget God. God‑gifts are given only as trusts. You are always on trial, every moment on test. In this sphere of life there is not to reason why, there is but to do and die. If you live, live in accordance with God; and if you die, die in the path of God. You may call it fatalism. But this type of fatalism is a condition of vigorous increasing effort, keeping you ever on the alert. Do not consider this temporal life on earth as the end of human existence. There is a life after death and it is eternal. Life after death is only a connection link, a door that opens up hidden reality of life. Every action in life however insignificant, produces a lasting effect. It is correctly recorded somehow. Some of the ways of God are known to you, but many of His ways are hidden from you. What is hidden in you and from you in this world will be unrolled and laid open before you in the next. The virtuous will enjoy the blessing of God, which the eye has not seen, nor has the ear heard, nor has it entered into the hearts of men to conceive of They will march onward reaching higher and higher stages of evolution. Those who have wasted opportunity in this life, shall under the inevitable law, which makes every man taste of what he has done, be subjugated to a course of treatment of the spiritual diseases which they have brought about with their own hands. Beware, it is terrible ordeal. Bodily pain is torture, you can bear somehow. Spiritual pain is hell, you will find it almost unbearable. Fight in this life itself the tendencies of the spirit prone to evil, tempting to lead you into iniquitous ways. Reach the next stage when the self‑accusing spirit in your conscience is awakened and the soul is anxious to attain moral excellence and revolt against disobedience. This will lead you to the final stage of the soul at rest, contended with God, finding its happiness and delight in Him alone. The soul no more stumbles. The stage of struggle passes away. Truth is victorious and falsehood lays down its arms. All complexes will then be resolved. Your house will not be divided against itself. Your personality will get integrated round the central core of submission to the will of God and complete surrender to His divine purpose. All hidden energies will be released. The soul then will have peace. God will then address you `O Thou soul that art at rest, and restest fully contended with thy Lord return to thy Lord. He pleased with thee and thou pleased with Him; So enter among My servants and enter into My paradise'. This is the final goal for man; to become, on the one hand, the master of the universe and on the other, to see that his soul finds rest in his Lord, that not only his Lord will be pleased with him but that he is also pleased with his Lord. Contentment, complete contentment, satisfaction, complete satisfaction, peace, complete peace. The love of God is his food at this stage and he drinks deep at the fountain of life. Sorrow and defeat do not overwhelm him and success does not find him in vain and exulting.
The western nations are only trying to become the master of the Universe. But their souls have not found peace and rest.
Thomas Carlyle, struck by this philosophy of life writes "and then also Islam‑that we must submit to God; that our whole strength lies in resigned submission to Him, whatsoever He does to us, the thing He sends to us, even if death and worse than death, shall be good, shall be best; we resign ourselves to God". The same author continues "If this be Islam, says Goethe and says "Yes, all of us that have any moral life, we all live so. This is yet the highest wisdom that heaven has revealed to our earth".