اَلۡحَمۡدُ لِلّٰہِ الَّذِیۡ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَہُ الۡحَمۡدُ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَکِیۡمُ الۡخَبِیۡرُ ﴿۲﴾
ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي لَهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَهُ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ
2375. Five Chapters of the Qur’an, i.e. 1st, 6th, 18th, 35th and the present one, begin with the words 'All praise is due to Allah.' All these Chapters, expressly or by implication, deal with the subject of the Lordship, Almightiness and Majesty of God. (close)
Five chapters of the Quran i.e. 1st, 6th, 18th, 35th and the present one, begin with the words "All praise is due to Allah."All these chapters, expressly or by implication, deal with the subject of the Lordship, Almightiness and Majesty of God. The preceding several chapters embodied prophecies about the rise, progress and the ultimate victory of Islam over false faiths. In the present Surah, however, the Muslims are warned that they should be on their guard against falling into bad ways. God being the Lord of all the worlds, He has no relation with any particular people and so if they followed evil ways as did the Israelites in the time of Solomon, all their power and glory will vanish and like the Israelites they will fall a victim to misery, degradation and ruin.
The words "His is praise in the Hereafter" refer to the time when Islam again will become triumphant after its decline. A detailed reference to this has been made in 32:6. (close)
یَعۡلَمُ مَا یَلِجُ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا یَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہَا وَ مَا یَنۡزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ وَ مَا یَعۡرُجُ فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ ہُوَ الرَّحِیۡمُ الۡغَفُوۡرُ ﴿۳﴾
يَعۡلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَمَا يَعۡرُجُ فِيهَاۚ وَهُوَ ٱلرَّحِيمُ ٱلۡغَفُورُ
b. 57:5. (close)
2376. The words, 'His is all praise in the Hereafter' refer to the time when Islam again will become triumphant after its temporary decline. The allusion in this verse is to the subject dealt with in 32:6. It signifies that it is God alone Who knows what kind of teaching is needed in a particular age. Similarly, it is He who knows when to take back to heaven the teaching which had descended from it, after it has been corrupted by the people, just as He takes water back to heaven in the form of vapours after it becomes corrupt, and sends it down in a purified form in the shape of rain. The words, 'whatever goes into the earth and whatever comes forth from it,' may also signify that whatever man shall sow, so shall he reap. Good actions produce good results and bad deeds lead to evil consequences. The verse may also be taken as signifying that God is aware of every phenomenon and every event, including the rise and fall of nations. (close)
This verse consists of four clauses. The first clause, "whatever goes into the earth" corresponds to the third clause, viz. "whatever descends from the heaven;" and the second clause, "and whatever comes forth from it," corresponds to the fourth clause, "whatever ascends into it." The allusion in this verse is to the subject dealt with in 32:6. The verse signifies that it is God alone Who knows what kind of teaching is needed in a particular age. Similarly, it is He Who knows when to take back to heaven the teaching which had descended from it, after it has been corrupted by the people, just as He takes water back to heaven in the form of vapours after it becomes corrupt, and sends it down in a purified form in the shape of rain. The words "whatever comes forth from it, and whatever descends from the heaven" may refer to the Word of God which is cast away by the people and is corrupted by them and then is taken up to heaven so that it may descend on earth in a purified state.
The words, "whatever goes into the earth and whatever comes forth from it," may also signify that whatever man shall sow, so shall he reap. Good actions produce good results and bad deeds lead to evil consequences.
The verse may also signify that God is aware of every phenomenon and every event, including the rise and fall of nations and peoples. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَا تَاۡتِیۡنَا السَّاعَۃُ ؕ قُلۡ بَلٰی وَ رَبِّیۡ لَتَاۡتِیَنَّکُمۡ ۙ عٰلِمِ الۡغَیۡبِ ۚ لَا یَعۡزُبُ عَنۡہُ مِثۡقَالُ ذَرَّۃٍ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ لَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَاۤ اَصۡغَرُ مِنۡ ذٰلِکَ وَ لَاۤ اَکۡبَرُ اِلَّا فِیۡ کِتٰبٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ٭ۙ﴿۴﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَا تَأۡتِينَا ٱلسَّاعَةُۖ قُلۡ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتَأۡتِيَنَّكُمۡ عَٰلِمِ ٱلۡغَيۡبِۖ لَا يَعۡزُبُ عَنۡهُ مِثۡقَالُ ذَرَّةٖ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَلَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَآ أَصۡغَرُ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَآ أَكۡبَرُ إِلَّا فِي كِتَٰبٖ مُّبِينٖ
a. 10:62. (close)
2377. The subject of the preceding verse is further elaborated and developed in the present one, viz. that no action good or bad goes unrequited. The disbelievers are thus warned that their opposition to Islam and their persecution of Muslims will not go unpunished. (close)
a. 10:62. (close)
The reference in the word "Hour" is to the hour of the triumph of Islam and the defeat and discomfiture of disbelief.
The subject of the preceding verse is further elaborated and developed in the present one, viz. that no action good or bad goes unrewarded. The disbelievers are thus warned that their opposition to Islam and their persecution of Muslims will not go unpunished. (close)
لِّیَجۡزِیَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ وَّ رِزۡقٌ کَرِیۡمٌ ﴿۵﴾
لِّيَجۡزِيَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٞ وَرِزۡقٞ كَرِيمٞ
b. 10:5; 30:46. (close)
b. 10:5; 30:46. (close)
This and the next verse constitute a further elaboration of the subject of the preceding verses, viz. the immutable law of cause and effect.
"Forgiveness" in the verse corresponds to the Divine attribute "Forgiving" and "honourable provision" corresponds to "Merciful" in v. 3. The words "forgiveness" and "honourable provision" have been placed in order of precedence, for مغفرة (forgiveness) always precedes رحیمیة (mercifulness). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ سَعَوۡ فِیۡۤ اٰیٰتِنَا مُعٰجِزِیۡنَ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مِّنۡ رِّجۡزٍ اَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ سَعَوۡ فِيٓ ءَايَٰتِنَا مُعَٰجِزِينَ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٞ مِّن رِّجۡزٍ أَلِيمٞ
c. 22:52; 34:39. (close)
a. 22:5; 34: 39. (close)
وَ یَرَی الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡعِلۡمَ الَّذِیۡۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنۡ رَّبِّکَ ہُوَ الۡحَقَّ ۙ وَ یَہۡدِیۡۤ اِلٰی صِرَاطِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَمِیۡدِ ﴿۷﴾
وَيَرَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡعِلۡمَ ٱلَّذِيٓ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ هُوَ ٱلۡحَقَّ وَيَهۡدِيٓ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ
d. 13:20; 22:55; 35:32; 56:96. (close)
b. 13:20; 22: 55; 35:32; 47:3; 56:96. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ہَلۡ نَدُلُّکُمۡ عَلٰی رَجُلٍ یُّنَبِّئُکُمۡ اِذَا مُزِّقۡتُمۡ کُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ ۙ اِنَّکُمۡ لَفِیۡ خَلۡقٍ جَدِیۡدٍ ۚ﴿۸﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَلۡ نَدُلُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٖ يُنَبِّئُكُمۡ إِذَا مُزِّقۡتُمۡ كُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ إِنَّكُمۡ لَفِي خَلۡقٖ جَدِيدٍ
3135. Important Words:
مزقتم (you are broken up) is derived from مزق which means, lie scattered or dispersed. مزق الثوب means, he tore the cloth in many places. مزق عرضه means, he rent or marred his honour or reputation. They say مزقھم کل مـمزق i.e. he dispersed them to all parts of the country. He (God) destroyed them thoroughly and completely (Lane & Aqrab).
In verse 4 disbelievers were warned that the time of the triumph of Islam and their own destruction was fast approaching. The word used in that verse to convey this warning was الساعة (the Hour). In the verse under comment the disbelievers are shown as vainly seeking to divert the subject of their defeat by pretending to take the word الساعة (the Hour) in the sense of the Day of Resurrection when they shall be broken up into pieces and not in the sense in which it has been used in v. 4. viz. the day of their defeat and destruction in this world. The verse may also mean that disbelievers accuse the Holy Prophet of seeking to create a community of his own by causing discord and disharmony in their ranks, and implies the answer that these people who brag so much of their unity were never a united people. Their talk of unity is an empty talk and their charge that the Holy Prophet seeks to create disunity among them is altogether fake and unfounded. (close)
اَفۡتَرٰی عَلَی اللّٰہِ کَذِبًا اَمۡ بِہٖ جِنَّۃٌ ؕ بَلِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ فِی الۡعَذَابِ وَ الضَّلٰلِ الۡبَعِیۡدِ ﴿۹﴾
أَفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَم بِهِۦ جِنَّةُۢۗ بَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ فِي ٱلۡعَذَابِ وَٱلضَّلَٰلِ ٱلۡبَعِيدِ
a. 17:11; 27:5. (close)
a. 17:11; 27:5. (close)
اَفَلَمۡ یَرَوۡا اِلٰی مَا بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ مَا خَلۡفَہُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنۡ نَّشَاۡ نَخۡسِفۡ بِہِمُ الۡاَرۡضَ اَوۡ نُسۡقِطۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ کِسَفًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّکُلِّ عَبۡدٍ مُّنِیۡبٍ ٪﴿۱۰﴾
أَفَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ مَا بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمَا خَلۡفَهُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِن نَّشَأۡ نَخۡسِفۡ بِهِمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ أَوۡ نُسۡقِطۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ كِسَفٗا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّكُلِّ عَبۡدٖ مُّنِيبٖ
b. 6:66; 17:69; 67:17, 18. (close)
2378. Mountain tribes. For a similar expression see 12:83. (close)
b. 6:66; 17:69; 67:17-18. (close)
The verse under comment continues the theme of the preceding verses and purports to say that there are evident signs in the heavens and the earth which constitute an unmistakable evidence of the fast approaching triumph of Islam and the downfall and disgrace of disbelievers. The words "We will make the earth sink with them" refer to the signs of the earth; and the words "or cause to fall upon them a portion of the heaven" allude to heavenly signs. Undoubtedly, the manner in which the forces of darkness and disbelief were put to rout in their combat against Islam showed that the victory of Islam was due solely to Divine help and succour which came to Muslims in the nick of time. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا دَاوٗدَ مِنَّا فَضۡلًا ؕ یٰجِبَالُ اَوِّبِیۡ مَعَہٗ وَ الطَّیۡرَ ۚ وَ اَلَنَّا لَہُ الۡحَدِیۡدَ ﴿ۙ۱۱﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا دَاوُۥدَ مِنَّا فَضۡلٗاۖ يَٰجِبَالُ أَوِّبِي مَعَهُۥ وَٱلطَّيۡرَۖ وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ ٱلۡحَدِيدَ
c. 21:80; 38:19, 20. (close)
2378A. Mountain tribes. For a similar expression see 12:83. (close)
2378B. See 1907. (close)
2379. The expression, 'And We made the iron soft for him,' shows that the art of making implements of war from iron was very much developed by David and he freely made use of it for making coats of mail as the next verse shows. (close)
c. 21:80; 38:19-20. (close)
3137. Important Words:
أوبی (repeat the praises) is derived from آب which means, he returned. آب الی الله means, he returned to God from his sins, he repented. أوب means, he repeated or echoed the praises of God (Lane & Aqrab).
As the principal theme of this Surah is the triumph of Islam and the great wealth, power and dominion that were to be given to Muslims, and as the might and splendour of the Israelites attained its zenith in the reigns of David and Solomon, so a somewhat detailed reference has been made in this Surah to these two great Prophets and Kings in order, on the one hand, to tell Muslims that such great glory and splendour will come to them also, and, on the other, to warn them that if they did not behave properly and if they defied and violated Divine commandments and indulged in evil practices, they too will come to grief, as did the Israelites after Solomon’s death, when all their power and glory departed, and they became pariahs among the nations.
For a detailed discussion of the subject as to how the mountains and the birds repeated the praises of God along with David see 21:80. Briefly, the word "mountains" signifies those mountain tribes which submitted to David, while the use of the word "birds" implies that David led large and powerful armies followed by flocks of birds which feasted upon the dead bodies of his vanquished foes. The words "birds" may also signify highly spiritual men or real birds which David used for carrying messages in time of war.
The expression "And We made the iron soft for him" shows that the art of making implements of war from iron had very much developed under David and he freely made use of it for making coats of mail as the next verse shows. (close)