لَا یُحِبُّ اللّٰہُ الۡجَہۡرَ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ اِلَّا مَنۡ ظُلِمَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعًا عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۹﴾
۞لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡجَهۡرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا
691. Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of other people in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court, but should not go about complaining to all and sundry. (close)
Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of a man in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court. But he should not go about complaining to all and sundry, because that is calculated to create ill-will and bad blood and may disturb public peace which the Quran in no case countenances.
The words, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing, have been added to point out that even for a man who is wronged, it is better to act patiently and refrain from speaking ill of anyone. He may either go to a law court or pray to God and seek justice and solace from Him. (close)
اِنۡ تُبۡدُوۡا خَیۡرًا اَوۡ تُخۡفُوۡہُ اَوۡ تَعۡفُوۡا عَنۡ سُوۡٓءٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۱۵۰﴾
إِن تُبۡدُواْ خَيۡرًا أَوۡ تُخۡفُوهُ أَوۡ تَعۡفُواْ عَن سُوٓءٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوّٗا قَدِيرًا
The verse further enlarges on the idea contained in the preceding verse, at the same time hinting that as far as possible man should try to pardon the wrongs done him by his brethren; for is not God, before Whom all of us will one day stand, the great Pardoner and the Effacer of sins? (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یُّفَرِّقُوۡا بَیۡنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ نُؤۡمِنُ بِبَعۡضٍ وَّ نَکۡفُرُ بِبَعۡضٍ ۙ وَّ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُوۡا بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۱۵۱﴾ۙ
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيۡنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤۡمِنُ بِبَعۡضٖ وَنَكۡفُرُ بِبَعۡضٖ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُواْ بَيۡنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا
d. 4:137. (close)
692. The verse means that they accept God and reject His Prophets; or accept some Prophets and reject others; or accept some claims of a Prophet and reject other claims. True faith lies in total submission, accepting God and all His Messengers with all their claims. No middle course is permissible. (close)
a. 4:137. (close)
This verse provides clear proof of the fact that belief in all the Messengers of God is essential. The expression رسله (His Messengers) comprehends all Messengers of God and admits of no exception, demanding belief in all Prophets, whether old or new.
The words, We believe in some and disbelieve in others, condemn those people who would believe in some Messengers of God and reject others. The idea is further explained by 4:153 below which says, those who believe in Allah and in all of His Messengers, and make no distinction between any of them. Here the expression, any of them, clearly refers to "the Messengers" and not to God and the Messengers combined, which shows that the present clause, We believe in some and disbelieve in others, refers to the distinction some people seek to make between the different Messengers, and not to the distinction they make between God and His Messengers, which has already been referred to in the preceding clause of the present verse, i.e. make a distinction between Allah and His Messengers.
Ibn Kathir, the famous expositor of the Quran, explains this verse as follows: "What is meant here is that he who rejects any of the Prophets of God really rejects all of them, for God has made it obligatory on man to believe in every Prophet whom He has raised for any people at any time on the earth" (vol. iii. 224). In fact, if a people reject a Prophet of God out of envy or bigotry or self-will, it becomes clear that their faith in the Prophet in whom they profess to believe is also not sincere and true but is mere make-belief. For, if they had really believed in him as a Messenger of God, they would have believed in that other one also who was his like and whose claim was supported by similar arguments.
The expression, desire to take a way in between, means that such people "seek a middle course between faith and disbelief", i.e. they accept God and reject His Prophets or accept some Prophets and reject others, or accept some claims of a Prophet and reject others or regard the claims of a Prophet to be true but do not consider themselves bound to join his fold. True faith lies in total submission, accepting God and all His Messengers with all their claims. No middle course is permissible. See also the two succeeding verses. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ حَقًّا ۚ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿۱۵۲﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ حَقّٗاۚ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٗا مُّهِينٗا
Those who seek to take a middle course, as explained in the previous verse, are "veritable disbelievers" in the sight of God and shall be awarded "a humiliating punishment." (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ لَمۡ یُفَرِّقُوۡا بَیۡنَ اَحَدٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ اُولٰٓئِکَ سَوۡفَ یُؤۡتِیۡہِمۡ اُجُوۡرَہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۳﴾٪
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمۡ يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيۡنَ أَحَدٖ مِّنۡهُمۡ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ سَوۡفَ يُؤۡتِيهِمۡ أُجُورَهُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
a. 2:137: 2:286; 3:85. (close)
a. 2:137; 2:286; 3:85. (close)
The verse 4:151 above dealt with four classes of disbelievers: (1) those who disbelieve both in Allah and His Messengers; (2) those who profess to believe in Allah but reject His Messengers, i.e. those who believe that there is indeed a God but that He sends no Messengers, or those who think they are bound to accept only that which God sends down by His revelation but do not look upon the behests and precepts of the Prophet as binding on them; (3) those who accept some of the Messengers of God and reject others; and (4) those who accept some claims of a divine Messenger and reject others, or those who, though declaring a claimant to prophethood to be true in his claims, do not think it to be binding on them to enter his fold. In continuation of the above, the verse under comment says that only those people can hope for reward from God who spurn all the above different forms of disbelief and whose faith in God and in all His Prophets is full and unqualified. (close)
یَسۡـَٔلُکَ اَہۡلُ الۡکِتٰبِ اَنۡ تُنَزِّلَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ کِتٰبًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ فَقَدۡ سَاَلُوۡا مُوۡسٰۤی اَکۡبَرَ مِنۡ ذٰلِکَ فَقَالُوۡۤا اَرِنَا اللّٰہَ جَہۡرَۃً فَاَخَذَتۡہُمُ الصّٰعِقَۃُ بِظُلۡمِہِمۡ ۚ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُوا الۡعِجۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَتۡہُمُ الۡبَیِّنٰتُ فَعَفَوۡنَا عَنۡ ذٰلِکَ ۚ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسٰی سُلۡطٰنًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۵۴﴾
يَسۡـَٔلُكَ أَهۡلُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ كِتَٰبٗا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ فَقَدۡ سَأَلُواْ مُوسَىٰٓ أَكۡبَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوٓاْ أَرِنَا ٱللَّهَ جَهۡرَةٗ فَأَخَذَتۡهُمُ ٱلصَّـٰعِقَةُ بِظُلۡمِهِمۡۚ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذُواْ ٱلۡعِجۡلَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَتۡهُمُ ٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتُ فَعَفَوۡنَا عَن ذَٰلِكَۚ وَءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلۡطَٰنٗا مُّبِينٗا
b. 2:109. (close)
c. 2:56. (close)
693. See 96. (close)
d. 2:52, 93; 7:149, 153. (close)
b. 2:109. (close)
c. 2:56. (close)
617. Important Words:
For the meaning of صاعقة (destructive punishment) see 2:56.
For an explanation of the words "show us Allah openly" see 2:56. (close)
وَ رَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَہُمُ الطُّوۡرَ بِمِیۡثَاقِہِمۡ وَ قُلۡنَا لَہُمُ ادۡخُلُوا الۡبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَّ قُلۡنَا لَہُمۡ لَا تَعۡدُوۡا فِی السَّبۡتِ وَ اَخَذۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ مِّیۡثَاقًا غَلِیۡظًا ﴿۱۵۵﴾
وَرَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَهُمُ ٱلطُّورَ بِمِيثَٰقِهِمۡ وَقُلۡنَا لَهُمُ ٱدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡبَابَ سُجَّدٗا وَقُلۡنَا لَهُمۡ لَا تَعۡدُواْ فِي ٱلسَّبۡتِ وَأَخَذۡنَا مِنۡهُم مِّيثَٰقًا غَلِيظٗا
a. 2:64, 94. (close)
b. 2:59; 7:162 (close)
c. 2:66; 4:48; 7:164; 16:125. (close)
694. See 4:48. (close)
a. 2:64, 94. (close)
b. 2:59; 7:162. (close)
c. 2:66; 4:48; 7:164; 16:125. (close)
See and compare 2:59, 64, 66 & 4:48. (close)
فَبِمَا نَقۡضِہِمۡ مِّیۡثَاقَہُمۡ وَ کُفۡرِہِمۡ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ قَتۡلِہِمُ الۡاَنۡۢبِیَآءَ بِغَیۡرِ حَقٍّ وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ قُلُوۡبُنَا غُلۡفٌ ؕ بَلۡ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہَا بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ فَلَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۵۶﴾۪
فَبِمَا نَقۡضِهِم مِّيثَٰقَهُمۡ وَكُفۡرِهِم بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَتۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقّٖ وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ قُلُوبُنَا غُلۡفُۢۚ بَلۡ طَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهَا بِكُفۡرِهِمۡ فَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
d. 5:14. (close)
e. 3:182. (close)
f. 2:89. (close)
g. 2:89; 16:109; 83:15. (close)
695. See 27. (close)
d. 5:14. (close)
e. 3:182. (close)
f. 2:89. (close)
619. Important Words:
طبع (sealed) is similar to ختم for which see 2:8. طبع means, he sealed, stamped, imprinted or impressed (Lane).
غلف (wrapped in covers). See 2:89.
See 2:8; 2:62; 2:89. (close)
وَّ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ وَ قَوۡلِہِمۡ عَلٰی مَرۡیَمَ بُہۡتَانًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۷﴾ۙ
وَبِكُفۡرِهِمۡ وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ عَلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ بُهۡتَٰنًا عَظِيمٗا
696. The Jews accused Mary of fornication ("Jewish Life of Jesus" by Panther). The fact that the Jews uttered "a calumny" against Mary constitutes clear evidence of the fatherless birth of Jesus. For, if Jesus had a father, what "calumny" was it that the Jews uttered against Mary? Merely taunting her for the claims made by Jesus could in no sense be called a calumny. Elsewhere, the Qur’an refutes this charge by saying that the mother of Jesus was a righteous woman (3:43; 5:76). (close)
The fact that the Jews uttered "a calumny" against Mary constitutes a clear evidence of the fatherless birth of Jesus. For if Jesus had a father, what "calumny" was it that the Jews uttered against Mary? Merely taunting her for the claims made by Jesus could in no sense be called a calumny. Elsewhere the Quran says that the mother of Jesus was a righteous woman and that Satan had no share in his birth (3:37:5:76). (close)
وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ اِنَّا قَتَلۡنَا الۡمَسِیۡحَ عِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ وَ مَا صَلَبُوۡہُ وَ لٰکِنۡ شُبِّہَ لَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ لَفِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّنۡہُ ؕ مَا لَہُمۡ بِہٖ مِنۡ عِلۡمٍ اِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ یَقِیۡنًۢا ﴿۱۵۸﴾ۙ
وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ إِنَّا قَتَلۡنَا ٱلۡمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمۡۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ لَفِي شَكّٖ مِّنۡهُۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِۦ مِنۡ عِلۡمٍ إِلَّا ٱتِّبَاعَ ٱلظَّنِّۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينَۢا
697. Ma Salabu-hu means, they did not cause his death on the cross. Salab being a well-known manner of killing. They say Salabul-Lissa, i.e. he put the thief to death by putting him on the cross. The verse does not deny the fact of Jesus’s being nailed to the cross but denies his having died on it. (close)
698. The words Shubbiha La-hum mean, Jesus was made to appear to the Jews like one crucified; or the matter of the death of Jesus became obscure or dubious to them. Shubbiha ‘Alaihil-Amru means, the matter was rendered confused, obscure or dubious to him (Lane). (close)
a. 10:37; 53:29. (close)
699. The expression, Ma Qatalu-hu Yaqinan, means, (1) they did not kill him for certain; (2) they did not convert it (their conjecture) into certainty, i.e. their knowledge about the death of Jesus on the cross was not so certain as to have left no doubt in their minds that they had really killed him. In this case the pronoun hu in Qatalu-hu would refer to the noun Zann (conjecture). The Arabs say Qatalash-Shai’a Khubran, i.e. he acquired full and certain knowledge of the thing so as to dispel all possibility of doubt about it (Lane, Lisan & Mufradat). That Jesus did not die on the cross but died a natural death is clear from the Qur’an. The following facts, as narrated in the Gospels themselves lend powerful support to the Quranic version:
1. Being a Divine Prophet Jesus could not have died on the cross because according to the Bible "he that is hanged is accursed of God" (Deut. 21:23).
2. He had prayed to God in great agony to "take away this cup (of death on the cross) from me" (Mark, 14:36; Matt. 26:29; Luke, 22:42); and his prayer was heard (Heb. 5:7).
3. He had predicted that like Jonah who had gone into the belly of the whale alive and had come out of it alive (Matt. 12:40) he would remain in an excavated sepulchre for three days and would come out of it alive.
He had also prophesied that he would go to seek out the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel (John, 10:16). Even Jews in Jesus’s time believed that the Lost Tribes of Israel had become dispersed in different lands (John, 7:34, 35).
1. Jesus had remained hung on the cross only for about three hours (John, 19:14) and being a person of normal constitution he could not have died in such a short time.
2. Immediately after he had been taken down from the cross his side was pierced and blood and water flowed out of it which was a certain sign of life (John, 19:34).
3. The Jews themselves were not sure of Jesus’s death because they had asked Pilate to have a guard posted at his sepulchre "lest his disciples come by night and steal him away and say unto the people, 'He is risen from the dead' " (Matt. 27:64).
4. There is not to be found in all the Gospels a single recorded statement of an eyewitness to the effect that Jesus was dead when he was taken down from the cross or when he was placed in the tomb. Moreover, none of the disciples was present at the scene of Crucifixion, all having fled when Jesus was taken to Calvary. The fact of the case seems to be that, presumably due to the dream of his wife "to have nothing to do with that just man," Pilate had believed Jesus to be innocent and had, therefore, conspired with Joseph of Arimathea, a respected member of the Essene Order to which Jesus himself belonged before he was commissioned as a Prophet, to save his life. The trial of Jesus took place on Friday, Pilate having purposely prolonged it, knowing that the next day being the Sabbath Day the condemned persons could not be left on the cross after sunset. When at last he found himself compelled to condemn Jesus, Pilate gave his judgment only three hours before sunset, thus making himself sure that no person of normal health could die in such a short time by remaining on the cross. He took additional care to see that Jesus was given wine or vinegar mingled with myrrh to render him less sensitive to pain. When after three hours’ suspension he was taken down from the cross in an unconscious state (probably under the influence of vinegar which was administered to him), Pilate readily granted Joseph of Arimathea’s request and handed over his body to him. Unlike those of the two malefactors who were hung along with Jesus, his bones were not broken and Joseph had him placed in a spacious room hewn in the side of a rock. There was no medical autopsy, no stethoscopic test, no inquest with the aid of the evidence of those who were last with him ("Mystical life of Jesus" by H. Spencer Lewis).
5. An ointment, the famous Marham-e-‘Isa, (Ointment of Jesus) was prepared and applied to Jesus’s wounds and he was tended and looked after by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, also a very learned and highly respected member of the Essene Brotherhood.
6. After his wounds had been sufficiently healed, Jesus left the tomb and met some of his disciples and had his food with them and walked the whole distance from Jerusalem to Galilee on foot (Luke, 24:50).
"The Crucifixion by an Eye Witness", a book, which was at first published in 1873 in U.S.A. and which is an English translation of an ancient Latin copy of a letter written seven years after the Crucifixion by an Essene Brother in Jerusalem to a member of this Brotherhood in Alexandria, lends powerful support to the view that Jesus had been taken down from the cross alive. The book narrates in detail all the events leading to the Crucifixion, the scenes at the Calvary and also the incidents that took place afterwards. See also 'The Larger Edition of the Commentary'.
Two different views prevail among the Jews regarding Jesus’s alleged death by Crucifixion. Some of them hold that he was first killed and then his dead body was hung on the cross, while others are of the view that he was put to death by being fixed to the cross. The former view is reflected in The Acts 5:30 where we read "which ye slew and hanged on a tree". The Qur’an refutes both these views by saying,
they slew him not, nor did they bring about his death on the cross.
The Qur’an first rejects the slaying of Jesus in any form, and then proceeds to deny the particular way of killing by hanging on the cross. It does not deny that Jesus was hung on the cross; it only denies his death on it. (close)
621. Important Words:
ماقتلوہ (they slew him not). قتله means, he slew him by striking him with a sword or with a stone or by poison or by any other means. See also 2:62 & 4:158.
ماقتلوہ یقینا (they did not convert this conjecture into certainty) is a peculiar Arabic idiom. The Arabs say قتل الشیء خبرا (lit. he killed the thing with certainty of knowledge and proper examination), i.e. he acquired full and thorough knowledge of the thing so as to dispel all possibility of doubt. So the words ما قتلوہ یقینا would mean, their knowledge regarding it was not comprehensive, or they did not know it for certain that he had been killed, or they did not convert this (conjecture of theirs) into certainty, meaning that they were not sure and they did not make sure whether Jesus died on the cross or not. In this case, the pronoun in قتلوہ would refer to the noun ظن (a conjecture) immediately preceding it (Lane, Aqrab, Mufradat & Lisan).
In plain English, the words would mean that their knowledge about the death of Jesus on the cross was not so full and comprehensive as to have attained the stage of certainty. The expression may also mean that they certainly did not slay him or that they did not kill him as a certainty, i.e. they did not execute him in such a way as definitely assure themselves that life had indeed become extinct in him.
ما صلبوه (nor crucified him). The word صلبوا is from the root صلب. They say صلب الشیء i.e. he burned the thing. صلب العظامmeans, he extracted the marrow out of the bones. صلب اللص means, he crucified the thief, i.e. he put him to death in a certain well-known manner (Lane & Aqrab). In crucifixion one was nailed to a framework made in the form of a cross and, being kept without food and drink, slowly died of pain, hunger, fatigue and exposure.
شبه لھم (he was made to appear to them like one crucified). شبھه إیاہ means, he made it or him to be like it or him, or he made it or him to resemble it or him. شبه علیه الامر means, the matter was rendered confused, obscure or dubious to him. شبه علیه الامرmeans, he rendered the matter confused to him (by making it to appear like some other thing); he rendered it confused, obscure or dubious to him (Lane & Aqrab).
This and the preceding verse mention two main objections of the Jews against Jesus: (1) his alleged illegitimate birth, and (2) his supposed death on the cross which, according to Jewish Law, was an accursed death (Deut. 21:23). The words, We did kill the Messiah, Jesus, Son of Mary—the Messenger of Allah, are spoken ironically and tauntingly, meaning, "we have killed Jesus who posed as the Messiah and a Messenger of God."
The argument of the Jews was that because Jesus died on the cross, he could not be a true Prophet according to Jewish Law. The inference was based on their sacred Scriptures; for, according to the Bible, he who is hanged is accursed of God, and a false Prophet shall meet with destruction. Says the Bible: "His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God) that thy land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance' (Deut. 21:23). Again: "My hand shall be upon false prophets that see vanity, and that divine lies" (Ezek. 13:9). Again: "Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the prophets that prophesy in My name, and I sent them not, yet they say, Sword and famine shall not be in this land, by sword and famine shall those prophets be consumed" (Jer. 14:15).
On the strength of such verses of the Bible, the Jews claimed that, as Jesus had been crucified and met with destruction, he could not be a true Prophet of God, but was a false claimant and an accursed one.
Regarding the charge about the alleged death of Jesus by crucifixion, the Quran says that the act of crucifixion having not been completed, and Jesus having been taken down alive from the cross, the charge carries no weight. It should, however, be noted that the Quran does not deny the mere hanging of Jesus on the cross; it only denies his death on it.
Two different views prevail among the Jews regarding Jesus’ alleged death by crucifixion. Some of them hold that Jesus was first killed and then his dead body was hung on the cross, while others are of the view that he was put to death by being fixed to the cross. The former view is reflected in Acts, 5:30 where we read "which ye slew and hanged on a tree." The Quran refutes both these views by saying, they slew him not, nor crucified him. The words may also signify that the Quran first rejects the slaying of Jesus in any form, and then proceeds to deny the particular way of killing by hanging on the cross.
The verb شبه (in the passive voice) means, he was made to appear like, or was made to resemble. Now the question arises, who is the person who was made to appear "like one crucified." Clearly, it was Jesus whom the Jews tried to crucify or slay. Nobody else can be meant here, for there is absolutely no reference to any other person in the context. Hence, the theory invented by certain commentators that Judas or somebody else was made to appear like Jesus and was then crucified in his place is simply absurd. The context cannot be so twisted as to make room for somebody else of whom no mention at all is made in the verse.
To what then was Jesus made like? The context provides a clear answer to that question. The Jews did not kill him by crucifixion, but he was made to appear to them like "one crucified", and thus it was that they wrongly took him for dead. It was thus Jesus who was made to resemble "one crucified." This interpretation is not only in perfect harmony with the context, but is also clearly borne out by all relevant facts of history.
The second meaning of the expression شبه لھم is, as explained under Important Words, that "the matter became confused to them." This interpretation is also clearly borne out by history; for, although the Jews asserted that they had put Jesus to death by suspending him on the cross, they were not sure of it and the circumstances being obscure, the matter had certainly become confused to them. The fact that the Jews themselves were not sure whether Jesus had actually died on the cross is supported by the Bible and by all authentic historical facts.
The statements made in this verse are clearly substantiated by the following facts narrated in the Gospels:
(1) Jesus had himself predicted his escape from death on the cross, saying, "As Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly, so shall the son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matt. 12:40). Now it is an accepted fact that Jonah had entered the whale’s belly alive and had come out alive; so, according to his own prophecy, Jesus was to enter the heart of the earth, (i.e. his tomb) alive and was to come out of it alive.
(2) The trying magistrate (Pilate) believed Jesus to be innocent and, being sympathetic, was anxious to save his life (Matt. 27:17, 18; Mark 15:9, 10, 14; Luke 23:4, 14, 15, 20,22; John 18:38, 39); and he must have secretly tried to save him or at least connived at the attempt of others to do so.
(3) Pilate’s wife had seen a vision concerning the innocence of Jesus: "When he (Pilate) was set down on the judgement seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, 'Have thou nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him'" (Matt. 27:19). This message must certainly have influenced Pilate, and his wife must have also done her best to save Jesus.
(4) Pilate held the killing of Jesus in such horror that he actually washed his hands with water, saying that he was innocent of the blood of that just man (Matt. 27:24).
(5) Pilate did all he could to help Jesus; and the soldiers in charge also treated Jesus with kindness, apparently under Pilate’s directions. The following are some of the special favours shown to Jesus: (a) Every malefactor carried his own cross but another man was made to carry that of Jesus (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21); (b) Jesus was given wine or vinegar mingled with myrrh. This was intended to render him less sensible to pain. The two thieves who were crucified with him were not given this drink. When after sometime the effects of the drink were wearing off and Jesus cried with pain, the drink was administered again to render him unconscious of pain (Matt. 27:34, 48; Mark 15:23, 36; John 19:29, 30).
(6) The unconsciousness which followed the administration of vinegar was mistaken for death (John 19:30).
(7) Jesus remained on the cross for only about three hours (John 19:14. cf. Matt. 27:46) and according to Mark only for six hours (Mark 15:25, 33), and either of these periods was by no means sufficient to kill a young man like Jesus on the cross.
(8) When Joseph of Arimathaea came and craved the body of Jesus, Pilate "marvelled if he were already dead", and calling to him the centurion asked him whether he had been any while dead (Mark, 15:44).
(9) The soldiers did not break the legs of Jesus, but the legs of the two malefactors who had been crucified with him were broken (John 19:32, 33).
(10) Jesus was not buried in the earth with the two malefactors but was laid separately in a spacious sepulchre hewn out of a rock and situated in a garden which was private property (Mark 15:46; John 19:41, 42).
(11) The Jews themselves were not sure that Jesus was dead; for they came to Pilate and besought him that his legs be broken (John 19:31).
(12) The doubt that Jesus was alive and might, with the aid of his sympathizers, escape from the sepulchre rankled in the minds of the Jews. They remembered also the prophecy of Jesus that he would show them the miracle of Jonah and would come out of the heart of the earth alive. So, influenced by such misgivings, the chief priests and Pharisees went together to Pilate, saying, "Sir, we remember that the deceiver said, while he was yet alive—'After three days I will rise again.'—Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day. Pilate told them to make their own arrangements; "so they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone and setting a watch" (Matt. 27:62-66).
(13) In spite of the watch and despite the sealing of the stone, Jesus had left the sepulchre before the third day had dawned, when Mary Magdalene and Mary, mother of James, came to see the sepulchre and found the stone rolled away and the sepulchre empty (Matt. 28:1-6 Mark 16:1-6), which shows that the men set to watch were also in league with, and won over by, the friends of Jesus.
(14) After leaving the sepulchre, Jesus moved about secretly, lest the Jews should have him arrested again (Mark 16:12 John 20:19, 26; 21:4).
(15) Mary Magdalene and other disciples actually saw Jesus in this body of clay (Mark 16:9, 12).
(16) Jesus showed them his wounds to assure them that he was not a spirit but a man of flesh and blood and that the body they saw before them was the same physical body that had been nailed to the cross (Luke 24:39, 40; John 20:27).
(17) After leaving the sepulchre, Jesus felt hungry and partook of food with his disciples (John 21:5, 13; Luke 24:41, 42, 43).
The above references among others make it abundantly clear that Jesus did not die on the cross, that he was alive when he was taken down from the cross, and also when he was laid in the sepulchre, and that he came out of it alive on the third day at early morn, as he had himself prophesied, and that later he appeared to his disciples in secret and assured them that he was not dead.
(18) Jesus had said, "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold, them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice and there shall be one fold and one shepherd" (John 10:16). In these words he was obviously referring to the lost ten tribes of Israel who had scattered in Afghanistan, Kashmir, etc. In search of these Jesus came to the East after his miraculous escape from an accursed death on the cross, and among these he now lies buried in Khan Yar Street in Srinagar Kashmir. Conclusive historical evidence has established the fact that the holy occupant of the tomb in the Khan Yar Street in Srinagar is no other than Jesus, son of Mary. For further discussion of this important subject, see Masih Hindustan Meiń (Jesus in India) by the Promised Messiah, and R. Rel. Vol. II Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 published from Qadian, and the "Tomb of Jesus" by Dr M. M. Sadiq of Qadian. (close)