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Men of Excellence; The Prophet's (sa) Mosque

MAR
15
Friday Sermon March 15th, 2019 delivered by Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad(at)

NOTE: Alislam Team takes full responsibility for any errors or miscommunication in this Synopsis of the Friday Sermon.

After reciting the Tashahhud, Ta’awwuz, and Surah Al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih V (aba) stated:

The name of the first of the companions that I will mention today is Hazrat Saib Bin Usman (ra). He belonged to the Banu Jum’a tribe. He was the son of Hazrat Usman Bin Maz’oon (ra). His mother’s name was Khaulah Bint Hakeem. He accepted Islam at the very outset of it. Hazrat Saib Bin Usman (ra) participated in the second migration to Abyssinia along with his father and his uncle, Hazrat Qudamah. The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saib Bin Usman (ra) and Harithah Bin Suraqah Ansari (ra) after the migration to Medina. Hazrat Saib Bin Usman (ra) participated in the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) appointed him the Ameer over Medina during the Battle of Buwaat. Hazrat Saib Bin Usman (ra) participated in the Battle of Yamama. The Battle of Yamama took place in 12AH during the period of the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), during which [Hazrat Saib] was shot by an arrow, as a result of which he later passed away. He was just a little over the age of 30.

The name of the next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Zamrah Bin ‘Amr Juhni (ra). Hazrat Zamrah (ra)’s father’s name was ‘Amr Bin ‘Adi. Hazrat Zamrah (ra) participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud and was martyred during the Battle of Uhud.

The name of the next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Sa’ad Bin Suhail (ra). Hazrat Sa’ad (ra) was from among the Ansar. Some have reported his name as Sa’eed Bin Suhail. Hazrat Sa’ad (ra) participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. He also had a daughter, whose name was Huzaila. This is all that is known about him.

Next, I will mention Hazrat Sa’ad Bin ‘Ubaid (ra), who was a badri companion. Hazrat Sa’ad Bin ‘Ubaid (ra) participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) including the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. His name has also been reported as Sa’eed. He was known by the title of Qari. His epithet was Abu Zaid.

Hazrat Sa’d bin ‘Ubaid (ra) is counted amongst those four companions from among the Ansar, who collected the Holy Qur’an during the life of the Holy Prophet (sa). His son, ‘Umair bin Sa’d ruled over a part of Syria during the caliphate of Hazrat ‘Umar (ra). According to one narration, Hazrat Sa’d bin ‘Ubaid (ra) used to lead the prayers in the Quba mosque during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (sa). He was also appointed to lead the prayers during the caliphates of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat ‘Umar (ra). Hazrat Sa’d bin ‘Ubaid (ra) was martyred during the battle of Qadisiyyah in 16 AH. He was sixty-four years of age at the time of his martyrdom.

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Sahl bin ‘Atiq (ra). His name is also mentioned as Suhail. The name of his mother was Jamila bint ‘Alqama. Hazrat Sahl bin ‘Atiq (ra) participated in the second pledge at ‘Aqba along with seventy Ansar. He had the honour to participate in the battles of Badr and Uhud.

The name of the companion to be mentioned next is Hazrat Suhail bin Rafi’ (ra). Hazrat Suhail bin Rafi’ (ra) belonged to the tribe of Banu Najjar. The piece of land on which Masjid Nabawi [mosque of the Prophet (sa)] was constructed, was the property of his and his brother, Hazrat Sahl (ra). The name of his mother was Zuhaiba bint Sahl. Hazrat Suhail (ra) participated alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) in all battles, including the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq [trench]. He passed away during the caliphate of Hazrat ‘Umar (ra).

The incidence of the building of the Nabawi Mosque is as follows. While the Prophet (sa) was in Medina, everybody longed to have the honour of being his host. As his camel passed through a lane, families would line up to receive him. With one voice they would say, ‘Here we are with our homes, our property and our lives to receive you and to offer our protection to you. Come and live with us.’ Politely the Prophet (sa) would refuse saying, ‘Leave my camel alone. She is under the command of God; she will stop where God wants her to stop.’ Ultimately it stopped on a site which belonged to orphans of the Banu Najjar tribe, which was situated to one side of Medina. The Holy Prophet (sa) dismounted and said, ‘It seems that this is where God wants us to stop.’ He made enquiries as to who was the owner of that plot of land. It was discovered that the land belonged to a few orphans. A trustee of the orphans came forward and said that the property belonged to such and such orphans and offered the site for the use of the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) replied that he would not accept the offer unless he was allowed to pay. A price was settled, and the Prophet (sa) decided to build a mosque and some houses on it.”

A basic mosque was constructed and to one corner of the mosque, a veranda was built, which was referred to as Ṣuffah. This was for those destitute Muhajirin who were homeless. These people would stay here and be known as the Aṣḥabuṣ-Ṣuffah. As such, they would remain in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) day and night, perform worship, and recite the Holy Qur’an. These people possessed no means of permanent subsistence. The Holy Prophet (sa) would take care of them personally and whenever the Holy Prophet (sa) would receive a gift, etc., or there was something available at home, he would especially separate their share. However, despite all this, they lived in a state of adversity, and would often reach a state of starvation. This state continued until some found work, due to the expansion of Madinah, and others began receiving support from the National Baitul-Mal. (When the overall conditions of the Muslims improved, they began to receive support)

A place of residence was constructed for the Holy Prophet (sa) adjacent to the mosque. His home was a small chamber of merely ten to fifteen feet. A single entrance led from this chamber to the mosque, from which the Holy Prophet (sa) would enter the mosque to lead the Ṣalat, etc. When the number of his wives increased, additional living quarters were also built for the Holy Prophet (sa) alongside the first. The homes of various other Companions were also built in close proximity of the mosque.

This was how the Masjid-e-Nabawi was constructed in Madinah. In that era, since there was no other public building where tasks of national importance could be performed, the mosque also served as the headquarters of administration. The assembly of the Holy Prophet (sa) would take place here. It was here that all types of consultation took place. Legal verdicts were passed from here. It was from here that injunctions would be issued forth. This was the official guesthouse. In short, it served as a centre of any task of national importance. If required, it would be used as a confinement for prisoners as well.” Nonetheless, Hazrat Sohail (ra) and his brother had the good fortune of offering their land for this Great Centre of Islam.

The next companion is Hazrat Sa’ad bin Khaithamah (ra), who belonged to the Aus tribe. His mother’s name was Hind bint Aus. The Badri Companion, Abu Ziyaah Nu’man bin Thabit (ra) was his half-brother from his mother’s side. He was known by the titles Abu Khaithamah and Abu Abdullah. The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Sa’ad bin Khaithamah (ra) and Hazrat Abu Salmah bin Abdul Asad (ra). Hazrat Sa’ad (ra) was one of the twelve chiefs, appointed to supervise the Muslims of Medina during the second pledge at Aqabah. Dhul-Ḥijjah of 13 Nabawi, on the occasion of Hajj many hundreds of people from the Aus and the Khazraj tribes came to Makkah. Among them, there were seventy such people who had either become Muslim or now desired to become Muslims and came to Makkah in order to meet the Holy Prophet (sa). These were seventy souls from the Aus and the Khazraj tribes. Addressing them, the Holy Prophet (sa) recited a few verses from the Holy Qur’an and described the teachings of Islam in a brief address. Whilst alluding to Huququllah and Huququl-‘Ibad, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘With regards to myself, all I desire is that, just as you protect your dear ones and your kindred, if need be, you deal with me in the same manner.’ Then the Holy Prophet (sa) had completed his address, and these 70 people took Bai’at. The name of this Bai‘at is ‘The Second Bai‘at at ‘Aqabah’. When the Bai‘at had taken place, the Holy Prophet (sa) said: ‘Moses (as) appointed twelve chiefs among his people who served as their supervisors and protectors. I also wish to appoint twelve chiefs from among you who shall be your supervisors and your protectors. As such, propose the names of worthy men before me.’ Therefore, twelve men were proposed, who the Holy Prophet (sa) approved, and explained to them their duties.

During the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) resided at the house of Hazrat Kulthum bin Al Hadam (ra) in Quba. It is also narrated that the Holy Prophet (sa) stayed at the house of Hazrat Sa’ad bin Khaithamah (ra). Accordingly, the first Friday prayer offered in Madinah under these guidelines was at the house of Hazrat Sa’d bin Khaithamah (ra).

Hazrat Sa’ad bin Khaithamah (ra) owned a well in Quba which was called “Al Ghars”. The Holy Prophet (sa) would regularly drink from that well and had said regarding the well “This is from the fountains of Paradise and its water is excellent”. Meaning it is palatably sweet and cool. Upon the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), it was from this well’s water that his body was washed.

Suleiman bin Abaan narrates that when the Holy Prophet (sa) set out for the Battle of Badr, both Hazrat Sa’d bin Khaithamah (ra) and his father made the intent of setting out with him. When it was brought to the attention of the Holy Prophet (sa) that both father and son -from a single household- are setting out together; He instructed “Only one shall set out, and to decide who goes, they should cast lots”. Hazrat Khaithamah (ra) told his son Sa’d (ra) “As only one of us can go for battle, I advise you to stay at home with the women to protect and guard them”. Hazrat Sa’d (ra) replied “Had this been a matter related to something other than Paradise, I would surely have given precedence to your request. But I myself am envious of martyrdom”. Upon this, they both casted lots which came in favor of Hazrat Sa’d (ra). He thus set out for battle alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) and was martyred in the battle of Badr.

So those Muslims, who took part in the battle of Badr, they did not have any worldly desire at all, rather it was simply the desire to offer their lives for the sake of God Almighty. It was for this reason that the son said to his father that he cannot give him precedence. In any case, it was a heartfelt passion [to offer a sacrifice] which God Almighty accepted and granted them victory. May God Almighty continue to elevate the station of the Companions.


English Translation



After reciting the Tashahud, Ta‘awuz, and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih V(aba) stated:

The first companion that I shall mention today is Hazrat Saib(ra) bin Usman. He belonged to the Banu Jumah tribe. He was the son of Hazrat Usman(ra) bin Mazoon. His mother’s name was Khaulah bint Hakeem. He was from among the early Muslim.

Hazrat Saib(ra) bin Usman participated in the second migration to Abyssinia along with his father and his uncle, Hazrat Qudamah(ra). After the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet(sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saib(ra) bin Usman and Harithah(ra) bin Suraqah Ansari. He was among the companions who were appointed as the archers of the Holy Prophet(sa). Hazrat Saib bin Usman(ra) participated in the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophet(sa). (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, pp. 396-397, Saib bin Usman(ra), Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 306-307, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Asaba Fi Tameez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 3, p. 20, Saib bin Usman(ra), Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1995)

The Holy Prophet(sa) appointed him the Amir over Medina during the Battle of Buwaat. Regarding the Battle of Buwaat, which took place in 2 AH, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) has written:

“During the last days of this Rabiul Awwal or in the beginning of Rabiul Sani, the Holy Prophet(sa) once again received news of the Quraish. Upon this, the Holy Prophet(sa) took along a group of companions from among the Muhajireen and set out himself. He appointed Saib bin Usman bin Mazoon(ra) as the Amir of Medina in his absence. However, the whereabouts of the Quraish could not be ascertained and upon reaching Buwaat, the Holy Prophet(sa) returned.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), p. 329)

Buwaat is the name of a mountain situated near the tribe of Juhainah, located about 48 miles from Medina. (Subul Al-Huda, Vol. 4, p. 15, Baab Ghazwa-e-Bawaat, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

Hazrat Saib(ra) bin Usman participated in the Battle of Yamama. The Battle of Yamama took place in 12 AH during the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), in which Hazrat Saib(ra) was struck by an arrow, which later led to his martyrdom. He was over the age of 30 at the time of his demise. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 307, Saib bin Usmanra bin Mazoon, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Dhamrah(ra) bin Amr Juhni. Hazrat Dhamrah’s(ra) father’s name was Amr bin Adi. Some also report his father’s name as Bishr. He was a confederate of the tribe of Banu Tareef. However, according to some, he was a confederate of the tribe of Banu Saaidah, which was the tribe of Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaadah. (Confederate means that they had a mutual agreement to help each other, should a need arise.) Allamah Ibn Athir writes in Usdul Ghaba, “This is not a contradiction because Banu Tareef was a branch of Banu Saaidah.” Hazrat Dhamrah(ra) participated in the battles of Badr and Uhud and was martyred during the Battle of Uhud. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 3, pp. 60-61, Dhamrah(ra) bin ‘Amr Juhni, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Suhail. Hazrat Saad(ra) was from among the Ansar. Some have reported his name as Saeed bin Suhail. Hazrat Saad(ra) participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. He also had a daughter, whose name was Huzaila. This is all that is known about him. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 439, Saad(ra) bin Suhail, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 395, Saad(ra) bin Suhail, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

Next I will mention Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid, who also participated in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Saad(ra) bin ‘Ubaid participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet(sa) including the Battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. His name has also been reported as Saeed. He was known by the title of Qari and also commonly known as Abu Zaid.

Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid is counted amongst those four companions from the Ansar who collated the Holy Quran during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet(sa). His son, Umair bin Saad was a governor in one of the regions of Syria during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar(ra). According to one narration, Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid used to lead the prayers in the Quba mosque during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet(sa). He was also appointed to lead the prayers during the caliphates of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and Hazrat Umar(ra). Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid was martyred during the Battle of Qadisiyyah in 16 AH. He was sixty-four years of age at the time of his martyrdom.

Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Laila narrates that during the Battle of Jisr, which took place in 13 AH, the Muslims were defeated and suffered a great loss and Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid had to retreat from the battle. Upon his return, Hazrat Umar(ra) asked Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid that if he had the desire to go for Jihad in Syria. For Muslims had been brutally attacked there and suffered greatly. If he agreed, he should go there as the enemy had become brazen due to the injury and bloodshed caused to the Muslims.

Hazrat Umar(ra) further added that perhaps he would be able to heal the scar of humiliation owing to their defeat. This is because he had retreated from the Battle of Jisr and the Muslims had suffered a great loss. Hence, Hazrat Umar(ra) said to him that if he wished to remove the scar of the humiliation and defeat, there was a battle taking place towards Syria as well. However, Hazrat Saad(ra) replied that he would not go to any other land besides the land from where he had fled or returned unsuccessfully. Furthermore, he said, “I will only go after the enemy, who succeeded in what they set out to do against me.” In other words, he referred to the enemy that had become victorious in the battle against him. Hence, Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid returned to Qadisiyyah and was martyred in combat.

Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Laila relates that Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubaid addressed the people and said, “We will fight the enemy tomorrow and we shall be martyred. Therefore, you should neither wash the blood from our body, nor dress us in any other clothes for burial besides the clothes we are wearing.” (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 445, Saad(ra) bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 349, Saad(ra) bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Asaba Fi Tameez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 3, p. 57, Saad(ra) bin Ubaid, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1995)

I mentioned a brief account in relation to the Battle of Jisr in one of the previous sermons, but I will share a few more details. As I have mentioned, the Battle of Jisr was fought in 13 AH on the bank of the Euphrates between Muslims and Iranians. The commander-in-chief of the Muslims was Hazrat Abu Ubaid Saqfi(ra), whereas the commander-in-chief of the Iranians was Bahman Jadhawiyah. The number of the Muslim army was 10,000, whereas the Iranian army numbered 30,000 and they also had 300 elephants.

During the course of the battle, the opposing armies met at the Euphrates, which proved to be an obstacle in the battle and thus fighting ceased between the two armies for some time. This continued to the extent that a Jisr – that is a bridge – was constructed over the Euphrates with both parties being in agreement to it. Due to this very bridge, it is known as the Battle of Jisr. Once the bridge was completed, Bahman Jadhawiyah sent a message to Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra) saying, “Will you cross the bridge and come to us or will you permit us to cross it?” Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra) was of the opinion that the Muslim army should cross the river and fight the opposing army. However, the leaders of the army, which included Hazrat Salit(ra), were against this opinion. Nevertheless, Hazrat Abu ‘Ubaid(ra) crossed the Euphrates and attacked the Iranian army. The battle continued in this manner for a short period.

A short while later, Bahman Jadhawiyah saw his army scattered around. He saw that the Iranian army was retreating upon which, he ordered the elephants to be moved to the front. As a result of the elephants moving to the front, the rows of the Muslims were broken and became disorganised. The Muslim army began to scatter to different places. Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra) said to the Muslims, “O servants of Allah! Attack the elephants and cut off their trunks.” Having said this, Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra) himself advanced and attacked an elephant and cut off its trunk. Seeing this, the remaining army also quickly began to fight. They cut off the trunks and feet of several elephants and killed those that were riding on them. Coincidentally, Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra) came face to face with an elephant and he struck his sword and cut off its trunk. However, he was trampled under its feet and was martyred. Following the martyrdom of Hazrat Abu Ubaid(ra), seven men, one after the other, grabbed hold of the Islamic flag and each one was martyred during the battle. The eighth individual was Hazrat Musanna(ra) who grabbed hold of the Islamic flag and intended to launch another valiant attack. However, the rows of the Muslim army were unorganised and having seen seven of their leaders being martyred one after the other, people began to disperse in different directions and some jumped into the river. Hazrat Musanna(ra) and his companions continued to fight courageously. In the end, Hazrat Musanna(ra) was wounded and whilst continuing to battle against the enemy, he crossed the river and returned. Muslims suffered a great loss during this incident. Four thousand Muslim men were martyred, whereas six thousand Iranian soldiers were killed. (Tarikh ibn Khuldoon, translated by Hakim Ahmad Hussain Al-Abadi, Vol. 3, pp. 270-273, Dar-ul-Isha’at Karachi, 2003)

The reason why the Battle of Jisr occurred in the first place was because the Iranians launched continuous attacks against the Muslims. Therefore, in order to stop these attacks, permission was sought to fight.

The next companion to be mentioned is Hazrat Sahl(ra) bin Atik. His name is also mentioned as Suhail. The name of his mother was Jamila bint Alqama. Hazrat Sahl(ra) bin Atik participated in the second pledge at Aqabah along with seventy Ansar. He had the honour to participate in the battles of Badr and Uhud. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 578, S Sahl(ra) bin ‘Atik, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 387, Sahl(ra) bin ‘Atik, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

The name of the companion to be mentioned next is Hazrat Suhail(ra) bin Rafey. Hazrat Suhail(ra) bin Rafey belonged to the tribe of Banu Najjar. The piece of land on which Masjid Nabawi [mosque of the Prophet(sa)] was constructed was the property of Hazrat Suhail(ra) and his brother, Hazrat Sahl(ra). The name of his mother was Zughaiba bint Sahl. Hazrat Suhail(ra) participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet(sa), including the battles of Badr, Uhud and the Ditch. He passed away during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar(ra). (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 372, Suhail bin Rafi’, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

With regard to the migration of the Holy Prophet(sa) to Medina, I will mention what Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) has written.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) writes:

“While the Prophet(sa) was in Medina, everybody longed to have the honour of being his host. As his camel passed through a lane, families would line up to receive him. With one voice they would say, ‘Here we are with our homes, our properties and our lives to receive you and to offer our protection to you. Come and live with us.’ Many would show greater zeal, go forward and hold the reins of the camel and insist on the Prophet dismounting in front of their doors and entering their houses. Politely, the Prophet(sa) would refuse saying, ‘Leave my camel alone. She is under the command of God; she will stop where God wants her to stop.’ Ultimately, it stopped on a site that belonged to orphans of the Banu Najjar tribe, which was situated to one side of Medina. The Holy Prophet(sa) dismounted and said, ‘It seems that this is where God wants us to stop.’ He made enquiries as to who the owner of that plot of land was. It was discovered that the land belonged to a few orphans. A trustee of the orphans came forward and said that the property belonged to such and such orphans, and offered the site for the use of the Holy Prophet(sa). The Holy Prophet(sa) replied that he would not accept the offer unless he was allowed to pay. A price was settled, and the Prophet(sa) decided to build a mosque and some houses on it.” (Deebacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Aloom, Vol. 20, p. 228)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) Sahib has mentioned more details about this account in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin. He writes:

“Upon arriving in Medina, the first task was the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi. The place where the camel of the Holy Prophet(sa) chose to rest was the property of two children from Medina named Sahl(ra) and Suhail(ra), who lived in the guardianship of Hazrat As‘ad(ra) bin Zurarah. This was a vacant land (which was barren and uninhabited), on which a few date palms had been planted in one area. In another area, there were ruins, etc. The Holy Prophet(sa) selected this plot to construct the Masjid-e-Nabawi, and his own livings quarters. This plot of land was purchased for 10 Dinar. The surface was levelled and cleared of trees, after which the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi began.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), p. 269)

According to another narration, the payment for this piece of land was made by Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra). (Sharah Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 186, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) further writes:

“The surface was levelled and cleared of trees, after which the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi began. The Holy Prophet(sa) supplicated to Allah and laid the foundation stone himself. Just as in the construction of the mosque at Quba, the Companions(ra) worked as builders and labourers. The Holy Prophet(sa) would also participate at times. Occasionally, while lifting bricks, the Companions would recite the following couplet of Abdullah(ra) bin Rawahah:

هَذَا الْحِمَالُ لَا حِمَالَ خَيْبَر، هَذَا أَبَرُّ رَبَّنَا وَأَطْهَرُ

‘This burden is not the burden of Khaibar’s commercial goods, which arrive loaded on the backs of animals; Rather, O our Lord! This is the burden of virtue and purity, which we bear for your pleasure.’

“At times, the Companions would recite the following couplet of Abdullah(ra) bin Rawahah:

اَللّٰھُمَّ اِنَّ الْاَجْرَ اَجْرُ الْاٰخِرَہ، فَارْحَمِ الْاَنْصَارَ وَالْمُہَاجِرَہ

‘O Our Allah! True reward is merely that of the hereafter. By Your Grace, send down Mercy upon the Ansar and Muhajirin.’

“When the Companions would recite this couplet, at times, the Holy Prophet(sa) would also join in. In this manner, after a long period of hard work, the mosque was completed. The structure of the mosque was made from slabs and bricks, which were assembled between wooden pillars. (In those days, the way they would build a solid structure was to make columns from wood and in between they would place bricks and mud in order to strengthen it.) The roof was covered by trunks and branches of date palms. Trunks of date palms were placed inside the mosque to support the roof. Until the building of a pulpit was proposed, the Holy Prophet(sa) would lean upon one of these trunks when delivering his sermon. The floor of the mosque was unpaved, and since the roof would leak after heavy rainfall, the floor of the mosque would become muddy. As such, in light of this difficulty, later on a floor of gravel was paved. Initially, the direction of the mosque was towards Baitul-Maqdas, but after the alteration of the Qiblah, this orientation was changed. At that time, the height of the mosque was 10 feet, the length was 105 feet, and the width was 90 feet. Later on, however, this was extended. (This area of 105 feet by 90 feet can accommodate approximately fifteen–sixteen hundred worshippers.) To one corner of the mosque, a veranda was built, which was referred to as Suffah. This was for those destitute Muhajirin who were homeless. These people would stay here, and were known as the Ashabus-Suffah. As such, they would remain in the company of the Holy Prophet(sa) day and night, perform worship and recite the Holy Quran. These people possessed no means of permanent subsistence. The Holy Prophet(sa) would take care of them personally and whenever the Holy Prophet(sa) would receive a gift or there was something available at home, he would especially separate their share. As a matter of fact, at times, the Holy Prophet(sa) would himself starve and send whatever was in his home to the Ashabus-Suffah. The Ansar would also remain engaged in their hospitality as much as possible and would often attach clusters of dates within the mosque. However, despite all this, they lived in a state of adversity and would often reach a state of starvation. This state continued until some found work due to the expansion of Medina and others began receiving support from the national Baitul-Mal [treasury]. (When the overall conditions of the Muslims improved, they began to receive support.)

“A place of residence was constructed for the Holy Prophet(sa) adjacent to the mosque. His home was a small chamber of merely ten to fifteen feet. A single entrance led from this chamber to the mosque, from which the Holy Prophet(sa) would enter the mosque to lead the Salat, etc. When the number of his wives increased, additional living quarters were also built for the Holy Prophet(sa) alongside the first. The homes of various other companions(ra) were also built in close proximity of the mosque.

This was the Masjid-e-Nabawi, which was constructed in Medina. In that era, since there was no other public building where tasks of national importance could be performed, the mosque also served as the headquarters of administration. The assembly of the Holy Prophet(sa) would take place here. It was here that all types of consultation took place. Legal verdicts were passed from here. It was from here that injunctions would be issued forth. This was the official guesthouse. In short, it served as a centre of any task of national importance. If required, it would be used as a confinement for prisoners as well.”

When the prisoners saw how the Muslims worship and their mutual love and respect, many of them converted to Islam. Nonetheless, in this regard even Sir William Muir, an orientalist, has written the same. He has written many things against Islam and the Holy Prophet(sa), however, regarding the mosque, Sir William Muir writes:

“But though rude in material, and comparatively insignificant in dimension, the Mosque of Mahomet is glorious in the history of Islam. Here the Prophet and his companions spent the greater portion of their time: here the daily service, with its oft-recurring prayers, was first publicly established: here the great congregation assembled every week, and trembled often while they listened to the orations of the Prophet and his messages from Heaven. Here he planned victories. From this spot he sent forth envoys to kings and emperors with summons to embrace Islam. Here he received embassies of contrite and believing tribes; and from hence issued commands which carried consternation amongst the rebellious to the very outskirts of the Peninsula. Hard by, in the room of Ayesha, he yielded up the ghost; and there he lies buried alongside his two Caliphs.”(Quoted in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), pp. 269-271)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) further states:

“This mosque and its adjoining chambers were constructed in a period of seven months, more or less. The Holy Prophet(sa) took up residence in his new home along with his wife Hazrat Saudah(ra). Various other Muhajirin also acquired land from the Ansar and built homes in close proximity of the mosque. Those who could not obtain land near the mosque constructed their homes at a distance from the mosque. Others were fortunate enough to procure pre-constructed houses from the Ansar.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), pp. 269-271)

Nonetheless, Hazrat Suhail(ra) and his brother had the good fortune of offering their land for this great centre of Islam.

The next companion is Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah, who belonged to the Aus tribe. His mother’s name was Hind bint Aus. The Badri Companion, Abu Dhiyaah Numan(ra) bin Thabit was his half-brother from his mother’s side. He was known by the titles of Abu Khaithamah and Abu Abdullah. The Holy Prophet(sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah and Hazrat Abu Salmah(ra) bin Abdul Asad. (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 429, Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 366-367, Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Saad(ra) was one of the twelve chiefs, appointed to supervise the Muslims of Medina during the second pledge at Aqabah. With regards to how the twelve chiefs were chosen and details about the incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra) Sahib has written the following in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin:

“The following year, that is, Dhul-Hijjah of 13 Nabawi, on the occasion of Hajj many hundreds of people from the Aus and the Khazraj came to Mecca. Among them, there were seventy such people who had either become Muslim or now desired to become Muslims, and came to Mecca in order to meet the Holy Prophet(sa). Musab(ra) bin Umair was also among them. Musab’s(ra) mother was alive, and although she was an idolatress, she loved him very much. When she was informed of his coming, she sent word that, ‘First come and meet me, then go elsewhere.’ Musab(ra) responded, ‘I have not yet met the Holy Prophet(sa), I shall come to you once I have met him.’ Therefore, he presented himself before the Holy Prophet(sa) first and briefed him on key issues, then visited his mother. She was very upset. When she saw him, she began to weep and complain. Musab(ra) said, ‘Mother! I tell you something wonderful which is very beneficial for you and shall put an end to every disagreement.’ She enquired, ‘What is that?’ Musab(ra) quietly responded, ‘This, that you forsake idol worship and become a Muslim and believe in the Holy Prophet(sa).’ She was a firm idolatress, and as soon as she heard this, she began to put up a commotion saying, ‘I swear by the stars that I shall never enter your religion,’ and signalled her relatives to capture Musab(ra), but he escaped.

“The Holy Prophet(sa) had been informed of the arrival of the Ansar by Musab(ra), and a few of them had also met the Holy Prophet(sa) personally. On this occasion, since a collective and private meeting was necessary, after the rites of Hajj, the middle dates of the month of Dhul-Hijjah were set for this purpose. On that day near the middle of the night, all these people were to come and meet the Holy Prophet(sa) in the same valley as last year, so that a private meeting could be held in peace and complete attention. The Holy Prophet(sa) ordered the Ansar that, ‘Do not come as a group, but arrive in pairs of one or two to the valley at the appointed time (lest they attract the attention of the enemy). Do not wake the sleeping and do not wait for the absent.’ Therefore, when the appointed date arrived during the night, when about a third of the night had passed, the Holy Prophet(sa) left his home. He took his uncle Abbas along with him, who was still an idolater, but loved the Holy Prophet(sa) and was a chieftain of the Hashim dynasty. Both of them reached this valley, and it was not long before the Ansar began to arrive in pairs of one and two. These were seventy souls from the Aus and the Khazraj. In the very beginning, Abbas (who had not yet accepted Islam) began the discourse saying:

‘O party of the Khazraj! Muhammad(sa) is revered and beloved within his dynasty. To this day, his dynasty has always remained responsible for his protection, and in times of danger has always come forward. But now, Muhammad(sa) intends to leave his homeland and reside with you. As such, if you wish to take him, you must protect him in every way, and will have to face every enemy. If you are prepared for this, then well and good, otherwise give a forthright answer, for true speech is good.’

“Al-Bara bin Ma‘rur(ra) an aged and influential man from the tribe of the Ansar, said, ‘Abbas, we have heard your address, but we would like to hear the Holy Prophet(sa) from his own blessed tongue, that he may expound the responsibility which he wishes to put upon us.’

 

“Upon this, the Holy Prophet(sa) recited a few verses from the Holy Quran and described the teachings of Islam in a brief address. Whilst alluding to Huququllah [rights of Allah] and Huququl-Ibad [rights of fellow creation], the Holy Prophet(sa) said:

‘With regard to myself, all I desire is that, just as you protect your dear ones and your kindred, if need be, you deal with me in the same manner.’

“When the Holy Prophet(sa) had completed his address, as per the custom of Arabia, Al-Bara bin Ma‘rur(ra) took the hand of the Holy Prophet(sa) into his own, and said, ‘O Messenger(sa) of Allah! We swear by the God Who has sent you with truth that we shall protect you with our lives, for we have been raised under the shadows of swords and…’  he had not yet completed his statement, when Abul-Haitham bin Tayyihan(ra) – who was among those who accepted Islam – interjected and said:

‘O Messenger(sa) of Allah! We have had long relations with the Jews. By supporting you, they shall be severed. May it not happen that when Allah grants you victory, you leave us and return to your homeland, and we are left with nothing.’

“The Holy Prophet(sa) laughed and said, ‘Nay, Nay! That shall not happen. For your blood shall be mine, your friends shall be my friends and your enemies shall be my enemies.’ Upon this, Abbas bin Ubadah Ansari(ra) looked to his companions and said, ‘O People! Do you understand the purpose of this treaty and pledge? This means that you should prepare yourselves to confront everyone, no matter who they may be, and should be ready to offer any sacrifice.’

“This means that they had to now be prepared to face every opponent of the Holy Prophet(sa), and to offer every kind of sacrifice.

“The people said, ‘Yes, we understand, but O Messenger(sa) of Allah! What shall we receive in exchange for this?’ The Holy Prophet(sa) said, ‘You will receive the paradise of Allah, which is the greatest of all His rewards.’

“Everyone said, ‘We agree to this bargain. O Messenger(sa) of Allah, extend your hand.’

“The Holy Prophet(sa) brought forth his blessed hand, and this group of seventy devotees were sold at the hand of the Holy Prophet(sa) in a defensive pact. The name of this Bai‘at is ‘The Second Bai‘at at Aqabah’.

“When the Bai‘at had taken place, the Holy Prophet(sa) said: ‘Moses(as) appointed twelve chiefs among his people who served as their supervisors and protectors. I also wish to appoint twelve chiefs from among you who shall be your supervisors and your protectors. They shall be like the disciples of Jesus(as) unto me, and they shall be answerable to me regarding the people. As such, propose the names of worthy men before me.’

“Therefore, twelve men were proposed, who the Holy Prophet(sa) approved, and appointing each as a supervisor to one tribe, he explained to them their duties. For some tribes, the Holy Prophet(sa) appointed two chiefs. In any case, the names of these twelve chiefs are as follows:

“As‘ad bin Zurarah, Usaid bin Al-Hudair, Abul-Haitham Malik bin Tayyihan, Saad bin Ubadah, Al-Bara bin Ma‘rur, Abdullah bin Rawahah, Ubadah bin Samit, Saad bin Ar-Rabi, Rafiey bin Malik, Abdullah bin Amr, Saad bin Khaithamah (The companion whose account is being narrated; he was appointed as one of the chiefs) and Mundhir bin Amr.” (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), pp. 227-232)

During the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet(sa) resided at the house of Hazrat Kulthum(ra) bin Al Hidam in Quba. It is also narrated that the Holy Prophet(sa) stayed at the house of Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah. Likewise, it is narrated that although the Holy Prophet(sa) stayed at the house of Hazrat Kulthum(ra) bin Al Hidam, when he left the house to go and sit amongst the people, it was at the house of Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah. (Al-Sira Al-Nabwiyya Li ibn Kathir, pp. 215-216, Kutub Al-Illmiyyah, Beirut, 2005)

After the first Bai‘at at Aqabah, the Holy Prophet(sa) sent Hazrat Musab(ra) bin Umair for the moral and spiritual training of Medina’s new converts. Shortly after, Hazrat Musab(ra) sought permission from the Holy Prophet(sa) to lead their own Friday prayers. Upon this, the Holy Prophet(sa) granted him permission and guided him on the matter. Accordingly, the first Friday prayer offered in Medina under these guidelines was at the house of Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, pp. 87-88, Mus’abra Al-Khair Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990).

This narration is from Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra.

Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah owned a well in Quba which was called “Al Ghars”. The Holy Prophet(sa) would regularly drink from that well and had said regarding the well, “This is from the fountains of Paradise and its water is excellent”. Meaning it is palatably sweet and cool. Upon the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), it was from this well’s water that his body was washed. Hazrat Ali(ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet(sa) had said “Upon my demise, take seven buckets of water from the well of Ghars to wash my body.”

Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali narrates that the Holy Prophet’s(sa) body was washed thrice. He was washed with water and leaves of tamarisk without removing his upper garment was still left on, i.e. his shirt was not taken off. Hazrat Ali(ra), Hazrat Abbas(ra) and Hazrat Fazl(ra) washed the body of the Holy Prophet(sa) after his demise. According to some narrations, Hazrat Usama(ra) bin Zaid, Hazrat Shukraan(ra) and Hazrat Aus(ra) bin Khawali also took part in washing the Holy Prophet’s(sa) blessed body. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 2, pp. 214, Zikr Ghusl-e-Rasool Allah, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990) (Sunan ibn Maaja, Kitabul Janaiz, Baab Maa Jaa fi Ghusle Nabi, Hadith no. 1468) (Subul Al-Huda, Vol. 7, p. 229, Dar-ul-Kutb Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

For many Muslim migrants escaping the persecution of the Quraish of Mecca, and upon reaching Medina, the first place of arrival would often be Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah’s house – that is, all who would arrive after migration would temporarily rest at his house. Some of the known names of those people are as follows: Hazrat Hamza(ra), Hazrat Zaid(ra) bin Haritha, Hazrat Abu Kabsha(ra), who was a slave freed by the Holy Prophet(sa), Hazrat Abdullah(ra) bin Masud etc … When these companions(ra) migrated, upon reaching Medina, they stayed at the house of Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah. (Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 6, 32, 36, 112, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990)

Suleiman bin Abaan narrates that when the Holy Prophet(sa) set out for the Battle of Badr, both Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah and his father made intent of setting out with him. When it was brought to the attention of the Holy Prophet(sa) that both father and son – from a single household – were setting out together, he instructed, “Only one shall set out, and to decide who goes, they should cast lots.”

Hazrat Khaithamah(ra) told his son Saad(ra), “As only one of us can go for battle, I advise you to stay at home with the women to protect and guard them.”

Hazrat Saad(ra) replied,

“Had this been a matter related to something other than Paradise, I would surely have given precedence to your request. But I myself am desirous of martyrdom.”

Upon this, they both casted lots which came in favor of Hazrat Saad(ra). He thus set out for battle alongside the Holy Prophet(sa) and was martyred in the Battle of Badr. (Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain Li Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 209, Hadith no. 4866, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Illmiyyah, 2002)

He was martyred at the hands of Amr bin Abd Wudd while according to another narration, it was by Tuaimah bin Adi. Hazrat Hamza(ra) killed Tuaimah in the Battle of Badr whereas Hazrat Ali(ra) killed Amr bin Abd Wudd in the Battle of Khandaq.

According to one narration, Hazrat Ali(ra) said:

“On the day of Badr, when the sun had fully appeared, the Muslim and Meccan armies clashed, meaning that the battle had begun. I went in pursuit of a person and saw Saad bin Khaithamah(ra) fighting an idolater atop a sand-dune, and the idolater martyred Hazrat Saad(ra). The idolater was on horseback and was wearing a chain armour. He got off the horse, for he had recognised me, but I had not recognised him yet. He invited me to engage in a battle with him, and I responded by pursuing him. When he came forward to attack me, I evaded his line of attack because he was coming from atop and this was disadvantageous to me – this is a technique in battle – I couldn’t afford him attacking me from above. When I was stepping aside for this reason, the idolater shouted, ‘O son of Abu Talib! Are you running away?’

“So I responded:

قَرِیْبٌ مَفَرُّ ابنِ الشَّتْرَاء

‘It is impossible for the son of Ishtira to run away!’”

Meaning that he could never run away. The term Ishtira had become proverbial among the Arabs. They say that history relates an incident of a thief who would come to steal from people, and when they attacked him, he would run away. However, his running away was only temporary, for he would strike again at the first opportunity. Thus, this gained fame as a proverb among the Arabs, i.e. you evade the enemy as a strategy to attack again.

Hazrat Ali(ra) further states, “When I planted my feet to fight, he approached me and attacked me with his sword which I blocked with my shield, and I swung my own sword at his shoulder with such force that it penetrated his armour. I was convinced that my sword would bring about his end when I noticed the silver glimmer of a blade in my periphery.

Hazrat Ali(ra) explains, “I was about to attack a second time, but immediately lowered my head when I noticed another sword coming towards me from behind. The second sword missed me and hit my opponent with such force that his head altogether became severed from his body along with its helmet.

Hazrat Ali(ra) goes on, “When I turned around to look, it was Hazrat Hamza(ra), saying ‘Let’s see how you defend yourself against this! I am the son of Abdul Muttalib!’” (Kitabul Mahazgi Li Al-Waqadi, pp. 92-93, Ghazwa-e-Badr, Alam-ul-Kutb, 1984) (Lughaatul Hadith, Vol. 2, p. 431, Ali Asif Printers, Lahore, 2005)

From this narration of Hazrat Ali(ra) it seems that Tuaimah bin Adi martyred Hazrat Saad(ra), and subsequently was killed there as well.

According to a narration, during the Battle of Badr, the Muslim army had two horses. On one of the horses, Hazrat Musab(ra) bin Umair was sat and on the other was Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Khaithamah. Hazrat Zubair(ra) bin Awam and Hazrat Miqdad(ra) bin Aswad also took turns to sit on them. (Dalail Al-Nabuwwah Li Al-Bahqi, Vol. 3, p. 110, Siyaq Qisatu Badr, Dar-ul-Kutb Al-Illmiyyah, Beirut, 1988)

There are various narrations in the accounts of history in relation to the number of horses the Muslims had during the Battle of Badr. According to Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), during the Battle of Badr, the Muslims had seventy camels and two horses. (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad(ra), p. 353)

However, other historical sources cite the number of horses as three and five as well. (Sharah Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 260, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996) (Al-Sira Al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, p. 205, Baab Zikr Maghazia, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)

Irrespective of the amount of provisions and the number of horses and camels the Muslim had, it was incomparable to the provisions and number of horses which were in the possession of the enemy. When the Muslims were attacked and the Muslims were compelled in engaging into a battle, the non-believers came with intention to completely obliterate Islam.

At that moment, the Muslims did not look at their provisions and horses, in fact they had a fervent passion to offer sacrifice in the way of God as is evident from their response. They did not have any worldly desire at all, rather it was simply the desire to offer their lives for the sake of God Almighty. It was for this reason that a son said to his father that he could not give him precedence. In any case, it was a heartfelt passion [to offer a sacrifice] which God Almighty accepted and granted them victory. May God Almighty continue to elevate the station of the companions(ra).

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About Friday Prayer

The Jumu'ah (Friday) prayer is one form of congregational worship in Islam. It takes place every Friday. Regular attendance at the Jumu'ah prayer is enjoined on the believer. According to a Saying of Muhammad(sa) this congregational prayer is twenty-five times more blessed than worship performed alone. (Bukhari)

Friday Prayers in the Quran

“O ye who believe! When the call is made for Prayer on Friday, hasten to the remembrance of Allah, and leave off all business. That is best for you, if you only knew.” more

Friday Prayers in the Hadith

“… (He who) offers the Prayers and listens quitely when the Imam stands up for sermon, will have his sins forgiven between that Friday and the next” (Bukhari)

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