After reciting Tashahhud, Ta‘awwuz and Surah al-Fatihah, His Holiness, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad(aba) said that he would continue highlighting incidents from the life of Hazrat Ali(ra).
His Holiness(aba) quoted the Second Caliph(ra) in narrating the incidents surrounding the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra). His Holiness(aba) said that the Khawarij [those who had left the allegiance of Hazrat Ali(ra)] decided that they should martyr Hazrat Ali(ra) and Hazrat Mu‘awiyah and Hazrat Amr bin Aas(ra). Those of the Khawarij who went out to martyr Hazrat Mu‘awiyah and Hazrat Amr bin Aas(ra) were both unsuccessful in their attempts. The person who went to kill Hazrat Ali(ra) attacked him whilst he led the prayer and critically wounded him.
His Holiness(aba) said that the Holy Prophet(sa) had prophesied the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra). The Holy Prophet(sa) once said that the worst from among the earlier people was the person who hamstrung the camel of Hazrat Saleh(ra), and the worst from among the later people would be he who struck Hazrat Ali(ra) with his spear. The Holy Prophet(sa) also indicated as to where Hazrat Ali(ra) would be struck.
His Holiness(aba) said that the person who set out to kill Hazrat Ali(ra) was a man named Abdur Rahman bin Muljam. In the morning before the Fajr prayer, Ibn Muljam positioned himself near the area from which Hazrat Ali(ra) used to come from. As Hazrat Ali(ra) set out for the prayer, and emerged from the door, he called out to remind people that it was the time for prayer. It was at that moment that Hazrat Ali(ra) was attacked and severely wounded. Ibn Muljam was apprehended and brought to Hazrat Ali(ra), who said that he should be treated and fed well, and that if he survived he would decide as to how to deal with him. However, he said if he were to pass away, then Ibn Muljam should also be killed, so that the matter between the two could be decided by God.
His Holiness(aba) said that in his will, Hazrat Ali(ra) advised his family to remain close, and fearful of God and to remain steadfast. He advised that all disputes should be avoided, because he once heard the Holy Prophet(sa) say that to uphold and mend mutual relationships is greater than offering voluntary prayers and voluntary fasting. His Holiness(aba) said that this is something which should be pondered over and is extremely important, that mutual relationships should always be mended. Hazrat Ali(ra) advised in his will that the poor and needy should be taken care of, and should be included as members of the society. He advised that one should never fear the nay-sayers, rather one should only fear God Almighty. His Holiness(aba) commented that this too is very important. Hazrat Ali(ra) further advised to always enjoin good and forbid evil; failure to do so will result in the wrong people becoming leaders and rulers. His Holiness(aba) said that this too is another point to be pondered over.
His Holiness(aba) said that when Hazrat Ali(ra) was injured, some people went to visit him and expressed their grief at the pain he was enduring. Hazrat Ali(ra) said that he felt no grief, for he had already been foretold by the Holy Prophet(sa) that he would be attacked, and was even told exactly where he would be struck.
His Holiness(aba) said that when another person went to see Hazrat Ali(ra), Hazrat Ali(ra) told him that he was soon going to depart. His daughter was sitting nearby, and upon hearing her father say this, she began to cry. Hazrat Ali(ra) told her not to cry; he said that if she could see what he was seeing then she would not cry. He said that he saw angels and the prophets, and he saw the Holy Prophet(sa) telling him that the place to which he was going was much better than the current state he was in.
His Holiness(aba) said that according to one narration, after he had completed his will, Hazrat Ali(ra) gave greetings of peace to everyone, and afterwards, professed his faith in the unity of God and belief in His Messenger (sa), after which he passed away. It is recorded that Hazrat Ali(ra) passed away on Ramadan 27 40 A.H.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Ali’s(ra) funeral was led by his son Hazrat Hasan(ra). It is recorded that Hazrat Ali(ra) possessed some musk which had been blessed by the Holy Prophet(sa). It was also part of his will that this same musk should be applied before his burial. His Holiness(aba) presented various narrations regarding the whereabouts of Hazrat Ali’s(ra) grave.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Ali(ra) married eight times at different times. Of his wives, one was Hazrat Fatimah(ra), daughter of the Holy Prophet(sa), and Umamah bin Abul Aas bin Rabi, who was the granddaughter of the Holy Prophet(sa). From these marriages, Hazrat Ali(ra) was granted more than 30 children; 14 boys and 19 girls.
His Holiness(aba) said that once, the Holy Prophet(sa) that he was a city of knowledge and Hazrat Ali(ra) was the gate to that city. Hazrat Ali(ra) is also recorded as being one of the bravest amongst all the companions. Often when any battle would start, Hazrat Ali(ra) would be appointed as the flag bearer of Islam. Recounting the blessings of God upon him, once Hazrat Ali(ra) said that there was a time when he used to tie stones to his stomach due to the severity of hunger, however God blessed him to such an extent that the amount which he would give in alms was up to forty thousand dinars.
His Holiness(aba) relayed a narration, in which once the Holy Prophet(sa) said to Hazrat Ali(ra) that he was his brother and friend. The Holy Prophet(sa) had also given Hazrat Ali(ra) glad tiding that he would enter Paradise. It is recorded that once the Holy Prophet(sa) said to Hazrat Ali(ra), that God had granted him an excellent quality, which was that he did not care for the material things of this world, and nor did those people who cared solely for the world want anything to do with him. The Holy Prophet(sa) said that fortunate were those who loved Hazrat Ali(ra) and spoke the truth about them, and they would be beside him in heaven, and those who hold enmity and lie about Hazrat Ali(ra) would be among the wretched in the Hereafter.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Ali(ra) used to advise the Muslims that they should rid themselves of personal passions, and that the only passion they should have is that which is for the sake of God. This was exemplified by his very own example, of when, during a battle, he was fighting against a staunch opponent. This fight between the two lasted for hours, after which Hazrat Ali(ra) finally overcame him, and was about to strike the final blow. However, just as he was about to, the opponent spat in Hazrat Ali’s(ra) face upon which Hazrat Ali(ra) immediately stepped away. The opponent inquired as to why he had done this, to which Hazrat Ali(ra) replied that till that point, he had been fighting for the sake of God, but he feared that now since he had spat in his face, if he killed him there may be some personal passion included in this act. Thus he stepped away. This had such a profound effect on the opponent that he would go on to accept Islam. His Holiness(aba) said that this is true righteousness.
His Holiness(aba) said that he would continue highlighting incidents from the life of Hazrat Ali(ra) in the future.
His Holiness(aba) said that today marks the beginning of a new year and is also the first Friday. His Holiness(aba) said that we should all pray that the new year proves to be blessed for this Community, and for the entire world. May we continue to turn to and prostrate before God more than before, and may the worldly people also be able to recognise God. May we be able to fulfill the rights we owe to one another and humanity at large.
His Holiness(aba) said that for the past year, we have been enduring a grave pandemic, from which no place in the world is safe. His Holiness(aba) said that despite this, many do not seem to want to consider the fact that this pandemic may have come about as a warning for us to start fulfilling the rights we owe to God and one another. His Holiness(aba) said that a few months ago, he sent letters to various world leaders in which he drew their attention to the fact that such calamities come about from becoming unmindful of God and growing in injustice. His Holiness(aba) said that though some leaders replied, their replies were limited to the worldly aspect of this crisis, they failed to acknowledge the aspect of God and faith which His Holiness(aba) had mentioned.
His Holiness(aba) said that these leaders do not seem to take any steps in changing their ways, nor do they wish to draw the attention of their people to their true purpose. This is despite the fact that they all know what is to come after this pandemic; something which everyone knows. However their efforts are limited to the worldly aspect, and do not go beyond that. Not only is this pandemic affecting the health of people, but at the same time, everyone is being impacted at a societal level. Worldly people only have one solution to this, which is that when their own resources become depleted, they will take the resources of smaller nations, as a result of which wars will break out. In fact, some say wars have already begun. As a result, the world will fall into an even deeper pit. Thus before the world falls into such a state, we must do our part in warning and helping the world.
His Holiness(aba) said that thus, it will only be right to congratulate one another on the new year once we do our part in warning the world. In order to do this, we must first analyse ourselves. For us, who have accepted the Messiah of the age, are we doing our part in fulfilling the rights owed to God, and then for His sake, fulfilling the rights owed to His people. Thus, every Ahmadi must ponder and realise that they have the responsibility of a great task, the fulfillment of which calls for them to first establish a loving community amongst Ahmadis. Then we must bring the world under that flag which was raised by the Holy Prophet(sa), which is of the unity of God. Only then will we be fulfilling the pledge of allegiance which we have made; only then will we be able to receive the blessing of God Almighty, and only then will it be appropriate for us to congratulate one another on the dawning of a new year.
His Holiness(aba) said that every Ahmadi man, woman and child should understand this and vow to strive and use all their faculties and capacities to bring about a revolutionary change in the world. His Holiness(aba) prayed that may every Ahmadi be granted the ability to do this.
His Holiness(aba) again urged the Community to continue praying for Ahmadis in Pakistan and Algeria, who continue to face hardships. His Holiness(aba) said that in Pakistan, certain government officials and other clerics continue to increase in grievances they are carrying out. His Holiness(aba) prayed that may God swiftly take such people to account who do not possess the ability to establish justice and peace. May Allah remove the obstacles which they continue to put up for Ahmadis in Pakistan. They seek to do all this under laws created against Ahmadis based on false pretenses that Ahmadis dishonour the Holy Prophet(sa). However, their own actions completely contradict the example set by the Mercy for All of Mankind (sa). Ahmadis are those who are ready to offer their lives for the sake of the Holy Prophet(sa). In fact, it is only Ahmadis in the world today who are truly endeavouring to bring the world under the banner of the Holy Prophet(sa). These people can continue to perpetrate such injustices against us, however we believe in a God Who is the Greatest Helper. When that help manifests, then not a remnant remains of those who perpetrate such acts. His Holiness(aba) said that another court in Algeria has freed Ahmadis who were being falsely charged, however there are still some who are captive. His Holiness(aba) urged the Community to pray for those in captivity there as well as in Pakistan. His Holiness(aba) said that whether it be the new year or Eid, our true happiness will be when we raise the banner of the unity of God in every corner of the world, for which the Holy Prophet(sa) was commissioned in this world. Our true happiness will be when humanity begins to recognise the rights we owe to one another, when hatred turns to love. His Holiness(aba) prayed that may we see such happiness soon. May the Muslim Ummah recognise the Promised Messiah(as). May the world turn the attention of every nation and every person towards fulfilling the rights owed to one another.
His Holiness(aba) prayed that may Allah Almighty keep every Ahmadi throughout the world in His protection, and may this year be a source of blessings for every single person. May we be safeguarded from those shortcomings of the past due to which we have incurred the displeasure of God or due to which we have remained bereft of attaining certain blessings. May Allah shower His blessings upon everyone.
Summary Prepared by The Review of Religions
After reciting the Tashahud, Ta‘awuz, and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih V(aa) stated:
I will continue narrating the accounts from the life of Hazrat Ali(ra). With regard to the background of Hazrat Ali’s(ra) martyrdom, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“The matters had not yet completely settled when a party of the Khawarij suggested to put an end to this disorder by killing all the prominent figures. Hence, some of their bold and brave men set out with the firm intention that one of them would kill Hazrat Ali(ra), while the other two would kill Hazrat Mu‘awiyah(ra) and Amr(ra) bin Aas, all in the same day and at the same time.
“The individual who set off towards Hazrat Mu‘awiyah(ra) managed to attack him, but since he did not land a clean strike with his sword, Hazrat Mu‘awiyah(ra) sustained only a minor injury. This individual was caught and was subsequently killed. The individual who set off to kill Amr(ra) bin Aas also failed in his attempt. This is because Hazrat Amr(ra) bin Aas could not go to the mosque to lead the prayer owing to an illness. Instead, the person who came to lead the prayer on behalf of Hazrat Amr(ra) bin Aas was killed. This person was also caught and subsequently executed.
“The individual who set off to kill Hazrat Ali(ra) attacked him when he was about to stand up to lead the morning prayer and as a result, Hazrat Ali(ra) was severely wounded. At the time of the attack, this individual uttered the following words: ‘O Ali! It is not your right that each and every word of yours be obeyed. This is the sole right of Allah!’” (Anwar-e-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 3, p. 202)
The Holy Prophet(sa) had foretold the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra). Hazrat Ubaidullah(ra) has narrated that the Holy Prophet(sa) said to Hazrat Ali(ra), “O Ali! Are you aware of the most unfortunate individual from among those who came before us and also from among those who will come after?” Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, “Allah and His Messenger(sa) know best.” Upon this, the Holy Prophet(sa) said, “The most wretched person from among those before us was the individual who hamstrung the she-camel of Hazrat Salih(ra). And O Ali! The most unfortunate person from among the latter ones will be the one to attack you with a spear.” The Holy Prophet(sa) then indicated where he would be struck.
The narration of Umm-e-Ja‘far, a maidservant of Hazrat Ali(ra), is as follows:
“I was pouring water over the hands of Hazrat Ali(ra) when he lifted his head, held his beard and pulled it up to his nose and addressing the beard, he said, ‘How fortunate you are! You will most certainly be coloured with blood.’ And on a Friday, he was martyred.”
In another instance, the incident of the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra) has been recorded in the following manner. Ibn Hanafiyyah relates:
“Hazrat Hasan(ra), Hazrat Husain(ra) and I were sitting in a Hammam when Ibn Muljam came to us. When he entered, Hazrat Hasan(ra) and Hazrat Husain(ra) expressed their displeasure towards him and said, ‘How dare you approach us here in this manner.’ I advised them to ignore him and not engage with him and said, ‘By God! He is even more dangerous than what he intends to do to you.’”
Following his attack on Hazrat Ali(ra), Ibn Muljam was brought forth as a prisoner. Seeing him, Ibn Hanafiyyah said, “I recognised [his intentions] very well the day he entered our Hammam.” Upon this, Hazrat Ali(ra) said, “He is a prisoner and as such, he should be well looked after and treated with respect. If I remain alive, I will either execute him or forgive him. However, if I die, kill him as retribution [for his crime], but do not transgress. Surely, Allah loves not the transgressors.”
Qusm, the freed slave of Hazrat Ibn Abbas(ra), narrates, “In his will, Hazrat Ali(ra) had instructed my eldest son that Ibn Muljam should not be struck in the stomach or the private area with a spear.”
It is said that three people from among the Khawarij had been selected – Abdur Rahman bin Muljam Muradi, who was from the Himyar tribe and was a part of the Murad tribe who were confederates of the Banu Jabala from the Qindah family, along with Burak bin Abdullah Tamimi and Amr bin Bukair Tamimi. The three met in Mecca and made a solemn oath that they would certainly kill Hazrat Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib, Hazrat Mu‘awiyyah(ra) bin Abi Sufyan and Hazrat Amr(ra) bin Aas, as has already been mentioned earlier in the quote of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra), that there were three assailants and these were their names and their intention was to “save” the people from them.
Abdur Rahman bin Muljam said that he would undertake the task of killing Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib. Burak said that he would undertake the task of killing Mu‘awiyyah(ra), while Amr bin Bukair said that he would grant them freedom from Amr(ra) bin Aas [i.e. he would kill him]. After this, they made a solemn oath and assured one another that they would not back down from killing the person they had each mentioned and they would not return until they had killed them, otherwise they would give their own lives in this endeavour, meaning that they would go and either kill those three people or they would give their lives for this and not return.
They decided amongst themselves to set the 17th night of Ramadan to carry out this task. Then each of the three set out towards the city in which their targeted person lived, meaning the person who they intended to kill. Abdur Rahman bin Muljam went to Kufa and met with his Khariji friends, whom he would go to see or they would come to see him; however, he kept his mission secret from them.
One day, he saw a group of people from the Taimur Ribaab tribe, among whom was a woman named Qatam bint Shijnah bin Adi. During the Battle of Nahrawan, Hazrat Ali(ra) had killed her father and brother. Ibn Muljam became fond of that woman and sent her a proposal for marriage. She replied saying that she would not marry him unless he made a promise to her. Ibn Muljam said that he would do whatever she asked. She said the she wanted 3,000 dirhams and for Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib to be killed. Upon this, he said, “By God, I have come to this city for the very purpose of killing Ali and so I will certainly grant you that which you have asked for.”
Then Ibn Muljam met Shabib bin Bajrah Ashja‘i and informed him of his plot and asked that he join him, to which Shabib agreed. Abdur Rahman bin Muljam spent the night before the intended day of his mission to kill Hazrat Ali(ra), hidden in the mosque of Ash‘ath bin Qais Qindi. As the time of dawn drew near, Ash‘ath told him to wake up as it was now morning. Abdur Rahman bin Muljam and Shabib bin Bajrah stood up with their swords with them and sat near the entrance from where Hazrat Ali(ra) used to pass through.
Hazrat Hasan bin Ali(ra) narrates that he went and sat by Hazrat Ali(ra) early in the morning. At that time, Hazrat Ali(ra) said that he had spent the night waking his family members [for prayer] and himself was overcome by sleep and he saw the Holy Prophet(sa) in a dream. Hazrat Ali(ra) said to the Holy Prophet(sa) [in the dream], “O Messenger(sa) of Allah, I have been made to endure discord and conflict from the people of your Ummah.”
The Holy Prophet(sa) replied, “Pray to Allah the Almighty against them.” Hazrat Ali(ra) prayed, “O Allah, give me in exchange for them that which is better than them, and give them in exchange that which is worse than me.” In the meantime, the muazzin [caller to prayer], Ibn Nabah, arrived and said that it was time for prayer. Hazrat Hasan(ra) states that he took hold of Hazrat Ali’s(ra) hand, then he stood up and began walking. Ibn Nabah was in front of him and Hazrat Hasan(ra) was behind him. As soon as he emerged from the door, he called out saying, “O people, it is time for prayer, it is time for prayer” – every morning, he would call out in this manner saying “Salat, Salat.”
Whenever he would leave, he would have a whip in his hand which he used to hit on people’s doors in order to wake them up. At that very moment, the two assailants came before him. According to eye-witness accounts, some say that they saw the glistening of a sword and heard someone say, “O Ali, only Allah has the power to command, not you.” Then another sword was also seen and then both launched a joint attack. Abdur Rahman bin Muljam’s sword struck Hazrat Ali’s(ra) forehead to the crown of his head and penetrated his brain, whilst Shabib’s sword struck the wooden door.
[Hazrat Hasan(ra)] heard Hazrat Ali(ra) saying that these men should not get away and though people converged upon them from all sides, Shabib was able to escape while Abdur Rahman bin Muljam was captured and was brought to Hazrat Ali(ra). Hazrat Ali(ra) said, “He should be fed well and be given a comfortable place to sleep; if I remain alive, then I will decide as to whether I will forgive him or seek retribution. However, if I die, then he too should be killed and be sent along with me; I will settle the matter with him in the presence of the Lord of All the Worlds”, meaning he would present the matter before Allah. (Ibn Saad, At-Tabaqat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], pp. 25-27)
When the time of Hazrat Ali’s(ra) demise drew near, he made a will, which read as follows:
“In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, Ever Merciful. This is the will of Ali bin Abi Talib. As part of Ali’s will, he bears testimony that there is none worthy of worship except Allah – He is One and has no partner – and that Muhammad(sa) is His servant and Messenger, who was guided by Allah and sent with the true religion, so that He may make it prevail over every religion, even though the other idolaters may dislike it. Surely my prayer and my sacrifice, my life and my death are all for the sake of Allah, who is Lord of All the Worlds, Who has no partner. This is what I have been commanded and I am of the obedient.
“After this, O Hasan” – he addressed his son – “I advise you, the rest of my progeny and my entire family to always remain fearful of Allah the Almighty, your Master. Also, you should leave this world in the state of belief in Islam. You should hold fast to the rope of Allah altogether and not be divided amongst yourselves, for I have heard Abu Al-Qasim(sa) [the Holy Prophet(sa)] say that to reform your mutual relationships is better than voluntary prayers and voluntary fasts.”
This is an important matter which should be remembered; the fact that reconciling your mutual relationships is a matter greater than offering voluntary prayers and fasts. To live harmoniously with one another and to settle your differences with one another and between others is a matter of great virtue.
“Take care of your relatives and treat them well; thus will Allah judge you with leniency. Fear Allah in matters pertaining to orphans; do not treat them in a manner that they are compelled to ask for help from you themselves, nor should you let them perish before you. Fear Allah in matters pertaining to neighbours, for this was the will of the Holy Prophet(sa). He always advised to remain mindful of the rights owed to neighbours, to the extent that we used to think that he may include the neighbours as heirs in one’s will.
“Fear Allah with regard to the Holy Quran, lest others precede you in fulfilling its commandments. Fear Allah in relation to the observance of prayer, for it is the pillar of your faith. Fear Allah with regard to the House of your Lord and do not allow it to become void as long as you live, for if you do so, you shall never find a house the like thereof. Fear Allah in the matter of Jihad in the way of Allah and strive with your lives and your wealth. Fear Allah in the matter of Zakat, for it extinguishes the wrath of God. Fear Allah in relation to the responsibility entrusted upon you by the Holy Prophet(sa). No one should be treated unjustly amongst you. Fear Allah in the matter of the Companions of the Holy Prophet(sa), for he has instructed us in their favour. Fear Allah in the matter of the poor and needy and share with them your means of livelihood. Fear Allah in the matter of those whom your right hands possess”, i.e. fear Allah in the matters of those for whom you have been made responsible.
“Safeguard your prayers. Safeguard your prayers. Do not fear the reproach of anyone when seeking the pleasure of God Almighty.” You should always give precedence to attaining the pleasure of God; this is very important. “God Alone will suffice you against anyone who wishes to do you harm or rebel against you. Speak good to people as you have been commanded by God Almighty. Do not forsake the enjoining of good and forbidding of evil, otherwise the evil ones amongst you will become your rulers”.
This is very important; to always adhere to the commandment of enjoining good and forbidding evil, i.e. encouraging to do good and prohibiting from evil, otherwise evil people from among you will be in authority over you.
“[If that happens] Then you will pray and your prayers will not be accepted” as is the condition of the Muslim countries nowadays. “Maintain the bonds and ties amongst one another and be of service to one another without any formalities. Beware! Do not enflame your enmities between one another, do not sever your ties and do not cause divisions. Help one another in piety and righteousness, but help not one another in sin and transgression. Fear Allah; surely Allah is severe in punishment. O honourable members of Ahl-e-Bait [members of the Holy Prophet’s(sa) family]! May Allah protect you and safeguard the Holy Prophet(sa) through you” i.e. through your pious examples, may the legacy of the Holy Prophet(sa) continue to live on. “I entrust you to Allah and invoke the peace and mercy of Allah upon you.” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 158)
According to the narration of Abu Sinan, he went to visit Hazrat Ali(ra) after he was wounded. He states, “I said, ‘O Amirul Momineen [Leader of the Faithful]! We are very concerned to see you in this wounded state.” Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, “By God, I am not concerned at all, because the Truthful Messenger(sa) of Allah informed me that I would sustain wounds in this particular place” and he then pointed to his temples. Hazrat Ali(ra) then stated, “… and the Holy Prophet(sa) had also stated that ‘blood will flow from here until your beard will be filled with its colour and the one who does this to you will be the worst and most wretched of people of this Ummah, just as the one who hamstrung the she-camel was the most wretched from among the people of Thamud.’” (Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, Hadith 4648 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002), p. 327)
In one narration, Hazrat Ali(ra) states with regard to the individual who fatally attacked him, i.e. Ibn Muljam, “Sit him down and if I pass away, then kill him, but do not mutilate his body. But if I remain alive, I myself shall decide whether to forgive or punish him.” (Ibn Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma‘rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 3, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 219)
Whilst mentioning this point, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“It is mentioned in books of history that a person wielding a dagger attacked Hazrat Ali(ra). He pierced his stomach which was cut open. The assailant was then apprehended.”
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) has written that his stomach was cut open. Perhaps there was a head wound in addition to the stomach wound, or this may have been Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’s(ra) opinion on the matter or perhaps he stated this as an expression. Nonetheless, the majority of the narrations state that he received a wound to the head.
[Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) further states:]
“The assailant was apprehended. The companions asked how they should deal with him. Hazrat Ali(ra) called Hazrat Imam Hasan(ra) and ordered, ‘If I die, then kill him as retribution for my death. But if I survive, then do not kill him.’” (Khutbat-e-Mahmud, Vol. 15, p. 428)
Amr Dhi Mur narrates:
“Hazrat Ali(ra) suffered wounds caused by a sword. When I went to see him, he had his head tied up. I said to him, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! Show me your wound.’ He removed the cloth from the wound to which I said, ‘It is only a minor injury and nothing more.’ Hazart Ali(ra) stated, ‘I am soon to depart from you all.’ Upon hearing this, Umm-e-Kulthum(ra), Hazrat Ali’s(ra) daughter, who was behind a curtain, began to cry. Hazrat Ali(ra) told her to stop and said, ‘If you saw what I am witnessing before me, you would not cry.’ I then said to him, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! What are you seeing before you?’ Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, ‘I see before me delegations of angels and prophets and also the Holy Prophet(sa) who is saying’”, i.e. this was in the form of a vision in which he saw angels, prophets “‘and the Holy Prophet(sa) was saying, “O Ali, rejoice! For the place where you are going to is better than the place where you currently are.”’”
In another narration, it is stated that when Hazrat Ali(ra) finished reciting his will, he said:
“I say to you, may the peace and blessings of Allah and His mercy be upon you.” After this, he said nothing except the declaration of faith [Kalima] and thereafter, he passed away. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifah al-Sahabah, Vol. 4, (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2003), pp. 114-115)
When Hazrat Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib passed away, Hazrat Hasan bin Ali(ra) stood up on the pulpit and said, “O people! Tonight, the person who has passed away is one who has no parallel among the people before him, nor will those coming after him ever attain his rank. When the Holy Prophet(sa) would send him on an expedition, Angel Gabriel would be on his right and Angel Michael on his left. He would never return until Allah the Almighty granted victory at his hands. He has only left behind 700 dirhams, with which he intended to purchase a servant and his soul was raised up on the same night that the soul of Jesus(as) was raised up” i.e. the 27th night of the blessed month of Ramadan. In another narration it states that he passed away on the 17th night of Ramadan in 40 AH. His martyrdom took place in 40 AH and Hazrat Ali’s(ra) Khilafat lasted for four years, eight and a half months. (Ibn Saad, At-Tabaqat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990], p. 28), (Ibn Hajar al- Asqalani, Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 468)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) has mentioned this incident as follows:
“In the third volume of Al-Tabaqat by Ibn Saad, there is a narration by Hazrat Imam Hasan(ra) regarding the events surrounding the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra), may Allah exalt him. He stated, ‘O People! Tonight, the person who has passed away was such that the level of some of his deeds were unattainable by the people of the past, nor can those that come in the future attain them. When the Holy Prophet(sa) would send him on an expedition, Angel Gabriel would be on his right and Angel Michael on his left. He would never return from any expedition without having gained victory first. He has only left behind 700 dirhams, with which he intended to purchase a servant. His soul was raised up on the same night that the soul of Jesus, son of Mary(as) was raised up towards the Heavens” i.e. the 27th night of Ramadan. (Dawat-ul-Amir, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 7, p. 348)
Hazrat Ali’s(ra) body was washed by his two sons and also Hazrat Abdullah bin Ja‘far(ra). Hazrat Ali’s(ra) son, Hazrat Hasan(ra) led the funeral prayer and recited four takbiraat [proclaiming Allah is the Greatest]. Hazrat Ali(ra) was wrapped in three sheets, which did not include a shirt. He was buried before dawn. It is said that Hazrat Ali(ra) had some sacred musk, which was left over from the musk that was applied to the blessed body of the Holy Prophet(sa). Hazrat Ali(ra) had stated as part of his will for that musk to be used on his body. There is a difference of opinion with regard to Hazrat Ali’s(ra) age at the time of his demise. Some narrations state that he was 57 years old at the time of his demise, while some state that he was 58. According to some, he was 65 years old, while others say he was 73 years old. The majority of the sources record the narration of 73 years old to be the most correct. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifatis Sahabah, Vol. 4, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003], p. 115)
The question about the location of Hazrat Ali’s(ra) grave is often asked. Differing narrations are found in the books of history which are as follows:
Hazrat Ali(ra) was buried in Kufa and the location was kept secret.
It is also said that Hazrat Ali(ra) was buried in the central mosque in Kufa.
Another narrations states that Hazrat Imam Hasan(ra) and Imam Husain(ra) took the body of Hazrat Ali(ra) to Medina and buried him in Janat al-Baqi, next to Hazrat Fatimah(ra).
According to another narration, when they [i.e. Imam Hasan(ra) and Imam Husain(ra)] placed Hazrat Ali’s(ra) body in a casket and loaded it onto a camel, the camel went missing. The camel was captured by the Tayy tribe and thought that the casket contained some wealth. However, when they opened it, they found a body but were unable to identify it. They then buried the casket with the body inside and nobody knows where Hazrat Ali’s(ra) grave is now.
Then in another narration, it is stated that Hazrat Hasan(ra) buried Hazrat Ali(ra) in Kufa, in the quarters belonging to one of the family members of Jadah bin Hubaidah. It is said that Jadah was Hazrat Ali’s(ra) nephew.
Imam Ja‘far Sadiq narrates, “Hazrat Ali’s(ra) funeral prayer was offered in the night and he was buried in Kufa. The location of his grave was undisclosed, but it was near to the Qasr Imarat.”
In another narration it is mentioned that after the demise of Hazrat Ali(ra), Hazrat Imam Hasan(ra) led Hazrat Ali’s(ra) funeral prayer and he was buried outside of Kufa. His grave was undisclosed lest the Khawarij etc. dishonoured it.
Some Shias say that Hazrat Ali’s(ra) grave is located in Najaf at a place which is known today as Mashad al-Najaf.
According to another narration, Hazrat Ali(ra) was martyred in Kufa, but the whereabouts of his grave are unknown. After the demise of Hazrat Ali(ra), Hazrat Imam Hasan(ra) led the funeral prayer and he was buried in the Dar al-Imarat of Kufa, fearing that the Khawarij would dishonour his body.
Allama Ibn Athir writes:
“There is a famous narration; which states that whosoever claimed that Hazrat Ali’s(ra) body was loaded on an animal and the animal went missing and that nobody knows where it went, this narration is incorrect. The one who stated such a thing was careless and has no knowledge of the true events, nor can rational or the Shariah agree with this narration. The majority of the ignorant Rafawid hold the belief that Hazrat Ali’s(ra) grave is located in Mashad al-Najaf. There is no proof or evidence to support this. On the contrary, it is believed that this is the grave of Hazrat Mughirah bin Shu‘bah(ra).” (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 4, Ch. 7 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], pp. 316-317) (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 477)
Imam Ibn Taimiyya writes:
“Scholars are in agreement that the grave at Mashad in Najaf is not of Hazrat Ali’s(ra). In fact, that is the grave of Hazrat Mughirah(ra) bin Shu‘bah. Despite being in government in Kufa and more than 300 years passing, the Ahl-e-Bait [family of the Holy Prophet(sa)], Shias and other Muslims never claimed that this was the grave of Hazrat Ali(ra). 300 years after the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali(ra), that site became known as Mashad-e-Ali. Thus, the narrations which state that this is the grave of Hazrat Ali(ra) are completely incorrect.” (Encyclopaedia Sirat Al-Sahaba Al-Kiram, Vol. 1, [Dar al-Salam, Riyadh, 1438 AH] p. 436)
After stating the different narrations that have been mentioned above regarding the tomb of Hazrat Ali(ra), Allama Ibn Jawzi writes in his book of history:
وَاللّٰہُ اَعْلَمُ اَیُّ الْاَقْوَالِ اَصَحُّ
“Allah knows best which narration is most correct and authentic.” (Al-Muntazam Fi Tarikh Al-Ummam Wa Al-Maluk, Vol. 5, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012] p. 178)
With regard to Hazrat Ali’s(ra) marriages and progeny, it is mentioned that he married a total of eight times during different periods. The names of his wives are as follows: Fatima(ra), daughter of the Holy Prophet(sa), Khaulah bint Ja‘far bin Qais, Lailah bint Mas‘ud bin Khalid, Umm Al-Baneen bint Hazaam bin Khalid, Asma bint Umais, Sahaba Umm Habib bint Rabi‘ah and Umamah bint Abil Aas bin Rabi‘ – the granddaughter of the Holy Prophet(sa) from his daughter, Hazrat Zainab(ra) – and Umm Saeed bint Urwah bin Masud Thaqafi. Allah the Almighty granted Hazrat Ali(ra) many children who numbered more than 30 – 14 boys and 19 girls. Hazrat Ali’s(ra) progeny continued through Hazrat Hasan(ra), Hazrat Husain(ra), Muhammad bin Hanafiyya, Abbas bin Kilabiya and Amr bin Taghlabiah. (Ibn Saad, At-Tabaqat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], p. 14), (Dr Ali Muhammad Salabi, Syedna Ali bin Abi Talib [Translation], [Al-Furqan Trust, Muzaffar Garh, Pakistan], pp. 82-83)
With regard to Hazrat Ali’s(ra) virtues, morals and qualities, it is written in a narration by Hazrat Ibn Abbas(ra) that the Holy prophet(sa) stated:
أَنَا مَدِیْنَۃُ الْعِلْمِ وَعَلِیٌّ بَابُہَا، فَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْمَدِینَۃَ، فَلْیَأْتِ الْبَابَ
“I am a city of knowledge and Ali is the gate to this city. Anyone who intends to come to this city should arrive at its door.” (Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 4695 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002), p.339)
With regard to this, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“Hazrat Ali(ra) once stated that the bravest and most courageous among the Companions was Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra). He further stated that during the Battle of Badr, when a separate canopy was erected for the Holy Prophet(sa), at the time, the question arose as to who should be assigned to protect the Holy Prophet(sa). Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) stood with an unsheathed sword and with the utmost bravery, organised for safeguarding the Holy Prophet(sa). Similarly, it is mentioned in the Ahadith that on one occasion, the Holy Prophet(sa) stated:
أَنَا مَدِیْنَۃُ الْعِلْمِ وَعَلِیٌّ بَابُہَا
“‘I am a city of knowledge and Ali is the gate to this city.’ The Holy Prophet(sa) declared Hazrat Ali(ra) to be one of the scholars, but during the Battle of Khaybar, at the most delicate of times, the Holy Prophet(sa) gave the Islamic flag to Hazrat Ali(ra). From this, it is proven that during the time of the Holy Prophet(sa), the scholars did not show cowardice; in fact, they were the bravest of all.” (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 7, pp. 364-365)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra), in regard to the bravery of the scholars, mentioned this incident.
Hazrat Ali(ra) states:
“There was a time when I would have to tie a rock to my stomach due to excessive hunger. But today, my Sadaqah”, i.e. Zakat, “amounts to 4,000 dinars.”
In another narration, it is mentioned as 40,000 dinars.
Abu Bahr narrates an incident from his teacher, who said, “I saw Hazrat Ali(ra) wearing a thick lower garment. Hazrat Ali(ra) said that he had bought it for five dirhams and that he would sell it to anyone who would give him one-dirham profit on it.”
The narrator further states, “I saw a small pouch with money in the hands of Hazrat Ali(ra). Hazrat Ali(ra) said, ‘This is the revenue from my property in Yanbu.’”
Yanbu is a settlement which is situated at a distance of 7 manzils [a manzil is a unit of distance equal to one day’s travel] from Medina towards the coast.
“Allah is the true Sovereign” was engraved on the ring of Hazrat Ali(ra). (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifatis Sahabah, Vol. 4, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003], p. 97), (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3 ([Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], p.22), (Lughat al-Hadith, Vol. 4 [Lahore, Pakistan: Nu‘mani Kutub Khana, 2005], p. 613)
Jumai bin Umair states, “I went to Hazrat Aisha(ra) with my aunt, who asked her, ‘Who was the most beloved to the Holy Prophet(sa)?’ to which she replied, ‘Fatimah’. She then asked, ‘And who was it from among the men?’ Hazrat Aisha(ra) replied, ‘Her husband, Hazrat Ali(ra)’. (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-Manaqib, Hadith 3874)
Hazrat Tha‘labah(ra) bin Abi Malik relates that Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubadah would be the flag-bearer for the Holy Prophet(sa) at the occasion of every battle; however, when the actual battle would commence, Hazrat Ali(ra) would take hold of the flag. (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifatis Sahabah, Vol. 4, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2003], p. 93)
A member of the Thaqeef tribe narrated that Hazrat Ali(ra) appointed him as the governor of Sabur. Sabur is an area in Iran which is situated approximately 75 miles from the city of Shiraz. Hazrat Ali(ra) instructed him that he should not punish anyone even over one dirham of tax, nor go after their wealth or their clothes whether it be the season of summer or winter. In other words, the tax should not be sought in a manner that they become deprived of even their clothing. He also admonished that he should not take any animal from them in tax which they used for their work. No one should be made to endure trouble if they paid less tax by even a dirham. In other words, he was not to cause the people to endure any kind of hardship or trouble in the collection of the tax or the Jizyah. Upon this, he submitted, “O Leader of the Faithful! In that case, I shall return to you in the same state as I am leaving for I will not be able to collect anything.” Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, “Indeed, even if it means that you return empty handed, because I have been commanded that we are only to take [tax/Jizyah] from the surplus wealth of people.” (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifatis Sahabah, Vol. 4, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2003], p. 98) (Mujam-ul-Buldan, Vol. 3, p. 188)
Hazrat Ibn Abbas(ra) relates that the Holy Prophet(sa) stated to Hazrat Ali(ra), “You are my brother and companion.” (Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 13, p. 109, Hadith 36356, Mu‘assisah al-Risalah, Beirut, 1981)
Ali bin Rabiah narrates that he was in the company of Hazrat Ali(ra) when an animal was brought before him so that he could mount upon it. When he was about to place his foot in the stirrup, he recited, “In the name of Allah” three times. When he sat upon it, he recited, “All praise belongs to Allah” and then recited:
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِیْ سَخَّرَ لَنَا ہٰذَا وَمَا کُنَّا لَہٗ مُقْرِنِیْنَ وَاِنَّا اِلٰى رَبِّنَا لَمُنْقَلِبُوْنَ
“Holy is He Who has subjected this to us, and we had not the strength to subdue it [ourselves]. And to our Lord surely shall we return.” (Surah al-Zukhruf, Ch.43: V.14-15)
He recited “All praise belongs to Allah” and “Allah is the greatest” three times. He then recited the following prayer:
سُبْحَانَکَ اِنِّیْ قَدْ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِیْ فَاغْفِرْ لِیْ فَاِنَّہٗ لَا یَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوْبَ اِلَّا اَنْتَ
“Holy is Thou, surely I have wronged my soul, thus forgive me for there is none Who forgives sins besides Thee.”
Thereafter, Hazrat Ali(ra) smiled. The narrator of the tradition states that he submitted, “O Leader of the Faithful, what made you smile?” Upon this, Hazrat Ali(ra) stated, “I saw the Messenger(sa) of Allah do exactly what I just did and I also enquired of the Messenger(sa) of Allah as to why he smiled and he replied, ‘Indeed, your Lord is most pleased by His servant when he says, “O my Lord, forgive me my sins, for there is none Who forgives sins besides You.”’ This is what caused the Messenger(sa) of Allah to smile.” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Abwab Al-Da‘wat, Hadith 3446)
Yahya bin Ya‘mur relates that on one occasion, Hazrat Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib delivered an address. After offering praise and glorifying Allah the Almighty, he stated:
“O people, there were those who came before and were destroyed owing to their sins. Their pious people and their religious scholars would not warn them against committing sins. Subsequently, when they exceeded all bounds in their sins, they were seized by all kinds of punishment. Therefore, you ought to exhort others to do good and stop them from committing evil, lest you also face punishment like them. Remember, exhorting others to do good and stopping them from evil will neither diminish your livelihoods, nor bring you closer to death.” (Ibn Kathir, Tafsir-ul-Quran Al-Azim, Vol. 3, p. 132 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1998], p. 132)
Hazrat Jabir(ra) narrates, “One day, we visited the house of an Ansari woman with the Holy Prophet(sa). She had prepared a meal and had invited the Holy Prophet(sa). The Holy Prophet(sa) stated that a person was about to arrive, who was destined to enter Paradise. Soon after, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) entered and everyone congratulated him. The Holy Prophet(sa) then again stated that soon, a person would come who was destined to enter Paradise. Soon after, Hazrat Umar(ra) entered and again everyone congratulated him. The Holy Prophet(sa), for a third time, stated that the person who was about arrive would also be destined to enter Paradise. The narrator states that he saw that at the time, the Holy Prophet(sa) had hidden his head behind a small date palm plant and was saying, ‘O Allah, if You permit then allow Ali to be the next person to enter.’ Soon after, Hazrat Ali(ra) entered and everyone congratulated him as well.” (Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 5, p. 107, Hadith 14604, Alamul Kutub, Beirut, 1998)
Hazrat Anas(ra) relates that the Holy Prophet(sa) stated, “Paradise is awaiting three individuals; they are Ali, Ammar and Salman.” (Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr], p. 348)
Abu Uthman Nahdi relates that Hazrat Ali(ra) stated, “On one occasion, the Messenger(sa) of Allah was holding my hand and we passed through one of the streets of Medina and approached an orchard. I submitted, ‘O Messenger(sa) of Allah, how beautiful is this orchard.’ The Holy Prophet(sa) stated, ‘There is an even more beautiful orchard prepared for you in Paradise.’” (Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr 2002], pp. 349-350)
Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir(ra) relates that he heard the Holy Prophet(sa) say to Hazrat Ali(ra), “O Ali, Allah the Almighty has endowed you with a quality, which no other person has been granted the like of and that is aversion from material world. Allah the Almighty has made you in a way that you do not partake of anything from this world and the world does not take anything from you.”
In other words, he did not have any desire for material things and similarly those who are desirous of worldly material did not wish to keep any relationship with him.
“Moreover, Allah the Almighty has granted you love for the needy and they are well pleased by appointing you as their leader and you are pleased to be their leader. Thus, there are glad-tidings for one who shows love to you and speaks the truth about you and those who bear enmity against you, and those who utter lies about you shall perish. Those who show love to you and speak the truth about you will be your neighbours in Paradise and the companions of your palace. And those who bear enmity against you and fabricate lies against you, then Allah the Almighty has taken it upon Himself that on the Day of Judgment, He shall raise them amongst the most hardened liars.” (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usdul Ghabah fi Ma‘rifatis Sahabah, Vol. 4, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003], pp. 96-97)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“The Holy Prophet(sa) stated, ‘Hazrat Ali(ra) and Hazrat Fatimah(ra) will be in the same station in Paradise as me.’” (Barkaat-e-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Ulum. Vol. 2, p. 254)
There are also narrations in regard to Hazrat Ali(ra) being amongst those 10 fortunate companions, who in this very world were given the glad-tidings of Paradise through the blessed words of the Holy Prophet(sa) [ashra mubashara].
Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid relates:
“I can testify regarding nine people that they shall enter paradise and if I were to say the same about the 10th individual, I would not be committing a sin.” Upon being asked how he knew, he stated, “We were standing on Mount Hira with the Holy Prophet(sa) when it began shaking. The Holy Prophet(sa) then said, ‘Remain still, O Hira, for there is none upon this mount except for a prophet, siddiq [truthful] and a shaheed [a martyr].’”
Someone then asked who those 10 individuals were who were given the glad-tiding of entering Paradise. Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid(ra) replied, “The Holy Prophet(sa), Abu Bakr(ra), Umar(ra), Uthman(ra), Ali(ra), Talha(ra), Zubair(ra), Saad(ra) and Abdur Rahman(ra) bin Auf.” When asked who the 10th individual was, Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid(ra) replied, “It is me.” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Abwab Al-Manaqib, Hadith 3757)
The next account that I shall narrate, which has been mentioned by the Promised Messiah(as), has been quoted previously as well. However, it is regarding Hazrat Ali’s(ra) self-control and being free of any egotism; therefore I shall mention it once again. The Promised Messiah(as) states:
“Hazrat Ali(ra), may Allah exalt him, was once fighting against an enemy and he was doing so purely for the sake of Allah. At one point, Hazrat Ali(ra) felled the opponent and was kneeling over his chest when he suddenly spat in Hazrat Ali’s(ra) face. Hazrat Ali(ra) immediately stood off his chest and let him go. He said, ‘The reason for this was that till now, I was fighting against you for the sake of God, but now that you have spat in my face, therefore there is a personal incentive now. Therefore, I do not wish to kill you for any personal reason.’ Thus it is evidently clear that Hazrat Ali(ra) did not consider anyone with whom he had personal enmity as his enemy. This is the nature and habit that one should instil in themselves.” The Promised Messiah(as) advised the Jamaat, “What can displease God Almighty more than this that one causes pain to others and increases in enmity over personal reasons?” (Malfuzat, Vol. 8, p. 105)
Then, on another occasion, the Promised Messiah(as) explained this in further detail:
“Learn from Hazrat Ali(ra) in relation to how one ought to distinguish between one’s personal desire and one’s passion for the sake of Allah the Almighty. Once, Hazrat Ali(ra) fought against a disbeliever who was very strong. Each time he would try to get hold of him, he would escape. Eventually, Hazrat Ali(ra) overcame him and firmly got hold of him and knelt upon his chest and was just about to kill him with his dagger, but he spat in his face. When he did this, Hazrat Ali(ra) immediately came off his chest and left him. Expressing his astonishment, the disbeliever asked Hazrat Ali(ra) why he let him go despite the fact that he had overcome him after so much struggle and also given the fact that he was an enemy of his and wanted to take his blood and kill him. Hazrat Ali(ra) replied:
“‘The fact is that there is no personal enmity between me and you. Since you torment the Muslims owing to your opposition of their faith, that is why you were deserving of death and I was only trying to overcome you for the sake of my faith. However, when you spat at me, I became angry and I realised that there was now a personal reason at stake and therefore, it would not be permissible for me to do anything against you, for there is nothing I do for the sake of any personal reason; rather, everything is for the sake of Allah the Almighty. When I return to my normal state and my anger subsides, I will continue to come against you as I was doing before.’
“Upon hearing this, it had such a profound impact on the disbeliever that his heart became free from any kind of disbelief and thought to himself as to which other faith could there be in this world which was better than this faith by which one becomes completely pure. And so, he immediately repented and became a Muslim.” (Malfuzat, Vol. 9, p. 219)
Thus, this is true taqwa [righteousness] which then bears its fruits.
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) has also narrated this account of Hazrat Ali(ra) fighting against this Jew in a similar manner. He writes:
“Hazrat Ali(ra) once took part in a battle and came up against a very fierce opponent who very few people could challenge. Hazrat Ali(ra) fought against this strong Jewish solider for many hours. After many hours of fighting, Hazrat Ali(ra) managed to take the opponent down and knelt on his chest and decided to cut his neck with his dagger, when suddenly, he spat at Hazrat Ali(ra). Hazrat Ali(ra) immediately let him go and stood to one side. The Jewish solider was astonished and said, ‘That is strange; we have been fighting one another for many hours and finally you took me down and now you have suddenly let me go. What a foolish act you have committed.’
“Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, ‘I have not acted in a foolish manner, in fact when I took you down and you spat on my face, my heart became filled with anger as to why you spat at me. But with this, I also thought that up till now, whatever I was doing was for the sake of God, but now if I continue to fight against you, then I shall be killing you due to my personal anger.’”
[In other words] Hazrat Ali(ra) stated, “This could be owing to my personal anger rather than for the sake of attaining the pleasure of God.”
“‘Therefore, I deemed it appropriate that I should let you go. When my anger subsides, I will continue to fight against you.’” (Ahmadiyyat Dunya Mein Islami Talim or Tamadun Ka Sahih Namuna Pesh Karne Ke Liye Qaim Ki Gayi Hai, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 16, p. 132)
I will continue to narrate the accounts in the future [sermon], insha-Allah. But at this moment in time, I would like to say that today is the first day of the New Year and the first Jumuah [Friday]. Pray that this year may be a blessed one for the Jamaat, the entire world and the whole of mankind.
Whilst fulfilling our responsibilities, may we continue to turn towards Allah the Almighty and elevate the standards of our worship more than before. May the rest of the world also recognise the purpose of their creation and fulfil the rights of God and instead of usurping the rights of one another, may they fulfil the rights of one another whilst adhering to the commandments of Allah the Almighty. Otherwise, Allah the Almighty has His own unique way by which He draws the attention of the people of the world towards fulfilling their rights. If only we, and the rest of the world, understand this fundamental principle and in turn, reform our lives in this world and the Hereafter.
For the past year, we have been enduring a very dangerous pandemic and there is not a single country which is safe from this; in some places, it is more widespread whilst less severe in others.
However, it seems that the vast majority of the world does not wish to pay heed to the fact that perhaps this pandemic is from Allah the Almighty in order to draw their attention towards fulfilling their duties and responsibilities. They do not want to consider the fact that perhaps Allah the Almighty is drawing their attention through this; no one is pondering over this in this regard.
A few months ago, in order to draw the attention of various world leaders towards this, I wrote letters to them in relation to the Covid pandemic and drew their attention in the words of the Promised Messiah(as) in that these calamities come from Allah the Almighty as a result of people becoming unmindful of fulfilling their rights towards God Almighty and the growing injustices. Thus, they ought to pay heed towards this.
Some of these world leaders also replied, but their responses were in light of only worldly aspects and although they agreed with what was said, they failed to acknowledge the aspect of God and faith which was a significant part of those letters. However, not only are they failing to take any practical measures to reform their moral conditions, but they also do not want to show compassion to their people by making them aware of their true objective of life.
Despite the fact that everyone knows that the after-effects of this pandemic will be extremely perilous - something which is known by every world leader, every intelligent person and every analyst – they fail to pay heed towards the real solution and remain focused on their worldly endeavours. Not only are people being impacted by this pandemic at an individual level, but everyone is growing weaker with respect to their economy.
Of course there are the health implications [of this pandemic]; however, everyone is also being impacted financially as well. In fact, even the economies of powerful nations are also being heavily affected. Worldly people only have one solution to this, which is that when their economies collapse, they will overtake the economies of smaller nations by trapping them in one way or another and by making excuses to take hold of their wealth.
There will be blocs created for this purpose; in fact they have already started forming. A cold war will break out once again, which according to some, has already begun in some respects. It is also entirely possible that an actual armed war begins, which will prove to be catastrophic and as a result of which these people will fall into an even darker abyss. Poor nations are already being crushed, but [in the event of a war] the people belonging to the wealthy nations will also be crushed in a horrific manner.
Thus, before the world reaches such a state, we must fulfil our duty and warn the world of this. It is only when we fulfil our duty in this regard – i.e. to make the world aware of this – that we can then truly congratulate one another for the New Year. Of course, in order to do this, we will also have to assess our own conditions.
We, who have accepted the Imam Mahdi and Promised Messiah of this age, must ask ourselves whether we are at the level where, alongside fulfilling the rights owed to God Almighty, we are fulfilling the rights owed to His creation and whether we are doing so solely for His sake. Or do we still need to work towards reforming ourselves and increasing our mutual love and affection to a high standard? Thus, every Ahmadi should reflect upon the fact that they have been tasked with a great responsibility.
And to complete this task, we must first create an atmosphere of love and brotherhood in our own Ahmadi society and then bring the entire world under this banner, which was raised aloft by the Holy Prophet(sa) – the banner of the Unity of God. Only then will we be successful in fulfilling the purpose of our bai‘at [pledge of allegiance] and doing justice to it. Only after doing this will we become the recipients of the bounties of Allah and only then will we have the right to give and receive the greetings for the New Year. May Allah the Almighty enable us to do this and by understanding their responsibilities, may every Ahmadi man, woman, child and elderly pledge that they will use all of their faculties to bring about a transformation in the world this year. May Allah the Almighty enable every Ahmadi to fulfil this pledge.
Recently I have been reminding everyone to pray for the Ahmadis in Pakistan and Algeria; remember them in your prayers. In certain parts of Pakistan, some clerics and government officials are intent on carrying out injustices. May Allah swiftly seize such people who will not reform themselves.
Allah the Almighty knows which of them will reform themselves and those who will not. As for those who will not reform themselves, may Allah ensure the means of seizing them swiftly. They are carrying out atrocities under the blasphemy laws and are seeking to cause hindrances in all the different ways through which we perform tarbiyat [impart moral training] of our own members.
May Allah swiftly grant us respite from them and save us from them. In actuality, it is these people who tarnish the pristine name of the Mercy for Mankind [the Holy Prophet(sa)]. Ahmadis in fact are willing to sacrifice their lives to uphold the honour of the Holy Prophet(sa).
Today, those who are making the greatest effort and true efforts in bringing the world under the banner of the Holy Prophet(sa) are Ahmadis. Indeed, it can be said that if anyone is carrying out this task, it is none other than Ahmadis. Therefore, these worldly people may commit injustices against us with their mere worldly authority and wealth, but bear in mind that we believe in that God, Who is an excellent Protector and an excellent Helper. Indeed His support most certainly arrives. In that moment, when the help and support of God Almighty arrives, no remnant remains of such worldly people and those who deem themselves to be powerful and influential.
Hence, it is our duty to continue to increase in our worship through our prayers. It is only through this that we can truly succeed.
I mentioned that the Ahmadis in Algeria were all acquitted; one court pronounced them all innocent; another court acquitted them all with minor fines, but despite this, there still remain a few who are still imprisoned. Pray that they may be released very soon.
Pray also for the release of the imprisoned Ahmadis in Pakistan. Our joys, be they at the beginning of a new year or during Eid, will only truly manifest when we raise the banner of the unity of God in every corner of the world, which was brought by the Holy Prophet(sa). Our true joy will be when mankind recognises the human values and when they turn all mutual enmities into love.
May Allah the Almighty swiftly grant us the means of this true joy. May He grant sense to the Muslim Ummah so that they may accept the awaited Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi.
May God Almighty grant the world wisdom so that they may pay heed to the rights of God and the rights of mankind.
May Allah the Almighty keep every Ahmadi in every country of the world under His protection.
May He make this year a means of mercy and blessings for all Ahmadis and all people.
May Allah protect us from our flaws and shortcomings in previous years, which incurred the wrath of God Almighty or which deprived us of certain bounties.
May He make us recipients of His blessings and bounties and make us true believers.
May Allah the Almighty enable us to partake of these prayers.
Original Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International on 22 January 2021, pp. 5-11. Translated by The Review of Religions.