Friday Sermon delivered at Masjid Mubarak, Islamabad, Tilford, UK
After reciting Tashahhud, Ta‘awwuz and Surah al-Fatihah, His Holiness, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad(aba) continued highlighting incidents from the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).
His Holiness(aba) said that he would continue mentioning incidents surrounding Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) election as the Caliph. His Holiness(aba) said that Khubab bin Munzir(ra) encouraged the Ansar not to differ amongst themselves and remain firm upon their stance that there should be a leader from among them and a leader from among the Muhajireen. Hazrat Umar(ra) said that this would never be accepted by the Arabs as there cannot be two swords in one sheath. Furthermore, it would not be acceptable for the leader to be selected from those who were not the people from whom the Holy Prophet(sa) hailed i.e. the Quraish. This led to further disputes and differences of opinion.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) said to the Ansar that they were the first to support the Holy Prophet(sa) and that now they should not be the first to raise a dispute. Hazrat Umar(ra) then took hold of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) hand and asked who it was that the Holy Prophet(sa) told “Grieve not, for Allah is with us”. It was his companion in the cave, who was none other than Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra). Hazrat Umar(ra) then pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and encouraged everyone to follow suit. Thus, one by one, people came forward and pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) as the first Caliph of Islam. This was known as the Bai’at of Thaqifah Banu Sa’idah.
His Holiness(aba) said that the next day, Hazrat Umar(ra) delivered a speech in which he said that God Almighty had entrusted the people in the hands of a person who was the best among them, who was one of the two mentioned in the cave. He again encouraged everyone to pledge allegiance to him which they did.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) also delivered a speech in which he said that he would strive to grant everyone their rights. He said that the people should follow him so long as he remained obedient to God and His Messenger (sa).
His Holiness(aba) said that when Hazrat Ali(ra) was informed that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was accepting the pledge of allegiance, he hurried out without even fully getting ready so as not to delay and pledged allegiance to him. Contrary to some records which say that Hazrat Ali(ra) delayed pledging allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), His Holiness(aba) said that records which say that Hazrat Ali(ra) pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) on the first or second day after the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa) are the most accurate, as Hazrat Ali(ra) never left the side of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).
His Holiness(aba) said that news reached Makkah that people were pledging their allegiance. This news also reached Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) father, Abu Quhafah. He was astonished, and would name various tribes and ask whether they too had pledged allegiance to him, and he would receive a reply in the affirmative. Upon this, Abu Quhafah declared, ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad(sa) is His Messenger’. Although he had already accepted Islam before, hearing that his son – who had not held much significance before Islam – was now being accepted by Arabs as their leader, further strengthened his faith.
His Holiness(aba) said that once the Holy Prophet(sa) saw a dream which indicated to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) Caliphate. He saw that he was standing by a well, and then saw Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) come and draw out water from the well. Then Hazrat Umar(ra) came, and the bucket had become larger, and he too drew out water from the well with great strength.
His Holiness(aba) said that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) also saw a dream in which he was wearing a Yemeni cloak which had two stains on it. When he narrated the dream to the Holy Prophet(sa), he interpreted the Yemeni cloak to mean that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) would have a vast progeny and the two stains to mean that he would be the ruler over people for two years.
His Holiness(aba) said that despite being the leader and having control over all funds, he did not take any of the wealth for himself. Instead, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) decided to sell some clothes in order to have enough wealth to eat. When Hazrat Umar(ra) saw this, he said that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) should take a stipend from the treasury. Although Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was hesitant, Hazrat Umar(ra) said that the Holy Qur’an had permitted doing so and so he would not feel reluctant. Thus a stipend was set for him, however it was minimal, to the extent that it was just enough for his most basic needs of food and clothing.
His Holiness(aba) said from the outset of his Caliphate, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) had to deal with five challenges:
However, God enabled him to overcome all of these challenges. The Promised Messiah(as) likened Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) to Yusha bin Nun(as), the first successor to Moses(as). Just as he upheld the dispensation of Moses(as) after his demise, so too did Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) uphold the dispensation of the Holy Prophet(sa) after his demise.
His Holiness(aba) said that he would continue this mention in future sermons.
His Holiness(aba) appealed for prayers in light of the prevailing situation in the world and the worsening conditions of war. Now there are even threats of nuclear warfare, which will have catastrophic consequences and impact future generations, as His Holiness(aba) has been warned before. It is only God who can grant these people some sense.
His Holiness(aba) said that in these days there should be an increased focus on reciting Durood Sharif (salutations upon the Holy Prophet(sa)) and Istighfar (seeking forgiveness). His Holiness(aba) prayed that may Allah forgive us our faults, and grant understanding to world leaders.
His Holiness(aba) said that on a certain occasion, the Promised Messiah(as) advised the Community to repeatedly recite the following prayer:
‘Our Lord, grant us good in this world as well as good in the world to come, and protect us from the torment of the Fire.’ (The Holy Qur’an 2:202)
His Holiness(aba) said that the Promised Messiah(as) also advised that this prayer should especially be recited when standing up after ruku’ in prayers. His Holiness(aba) said that these days we should adopt the same practice.
His Holiness(aba) said that he would lead the funeral prayer in-absentia of the following deceased member:
Abul Farj al-Husni of Syria who passed away on 13 February 2022. He was fifteen years of age when he heard the recitation of the Holy Qur’an for the first time on the radio which greatly moved him. He then asked his uncle to learn more about God, and he gave him some literature of the Promised Messiah(as) which he read, and subsequently accepted the Promised Messiah(as). He was extremely sincere and possessed many virtuous qualities. He had the honour of meeting the third, fourth and fifth Caliphs of the Community. He was blessed to visit Rabwah and learn Urdu, and also visited Qadian and climbed to the top of Minaratul Masih. He was very wise and possessed spiritual insight. He saw many dreams which later came true. He studied the books of the Promised Messiah(as) very diligently. He was also extremely humble. His Holiness(aba) prayed that may Allah grant him forgiveness and mercy, elevate his station, and accept his prayers.
Summary prepared by The Review of Religions.
After reciting the tashahhud, ta‘awuz and Surah al-Fatihah, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih V(aa) said:
With regard to the details regarding the election of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) Khilafat, it has been recorded in Tarikh al-Tabari that on this occasion, Hazrat Hubbab(ra) bin al-Mundhir stood up and said:
“O people of the Ansar! Keep this matter in your hands as these people are currently under your care”, referring to the Muhajirin. “No one will have the courage to oppose you and people will not disagree with your opinion. You are honourable, affluent, in the majority, strong, mighty and experienced warriors, courageous and brave. People have turned towards you in order to see what you do. Do not disagree at this moment as your [difference of] opinion will create disorder among you and your matter will be turned against you. Hence, if these people”, i.e. the Muhajirin of the Quraish, “reject what you have just heard then there will be one leader from among us and one leader from among them.”
Upon this, Hazrat Umar(ra) said, “This is impossible! Two swords cannot be combined in one sheath. By Allah! Arabs will never agree to elect you as the leader, while their Prophet(sa) is from a different tribe than yours. However, the Arabs will have no objection to entrust their matters to those among whom prophethood was established, nor [would they object] that their leaders should be elected from them. Furthermore, if any Arab rejects the leadership in this case, then we will be justified and have the right to oppose him. Who will oppose us regarding the leadership of Muhammad(sa)? We are the very friends and family of the Holy Prophet(sa). None but the foolish, a sinner and the one who throws himself into destruction will oppose this proposition.”
Hubbab(ra) bin al-Mundhir said, “O people of the Ansar! Settle this matter among yourselves and do not at all agree to this person and his companions. They wish to devour your share as well and if they reject your proposition then drive them out of your areas and take control of all matters, because, by God, you are most deserving and worthy of this leadership. Your swords have made everyone obedient to this religion; all those who would otherwise not have obeyed. I take the responsibility of settling this entire matter on my shoulders, as I am experienced therein and also competent. By God! If you so desire then I will correct and settle this matter.”
Hazrat Umar(ra) said, “If you do this then Allah will destroy you!” Hazrat Hubbab(ra) replied, “It will, in fact, be you who will be destroyed!”
At this moment, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) said, “O congregation of Ansar! You are the pioneers in helping and assisting the religion. It should not be the case that you now become the first ones to alter and change it.”
Upon this, Bashir(ra) bin Saad said, “O congregation of Ansar! The sole objective of the opportunity we received of fighting the idolaters and serving the religion of Islam in its early stages was to acquire the pleasure of our Creator and it was done in obedience to our Messenger(sa) of Allah. It does not befit us to make ourselves superior to others and we do not desire any worldly benefit from this. This is merely a favour of Allah the Almighty upon us. Hearken! The Holy Prophet(sa) was most certainly from among the Quraish and as such, his tribe is more deserving and worthy of this leadership. I swear by God and proclaim that I will not dispute with them regarding this matter! Fear Allah and do not oppose them and do not dispute with them in relation to this matter!” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 243)
Another narration of the speech of Hazrat Umar(ra) is recorded in Sunan al-Kubra li al-Nasa‘i that when the Ansar said in the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah that there should be one leader from among each party, Hazrat Umar(ra) replied – as was previously mentioned – that there could be two swords in one sheath as they would not fare well if it were so. Hazrat Umar(ra) then took the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and said, “Who is it that possesses these three qualities:
إِذۡ یَقُولُ لِصَٰحِبِہِۦ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ إِنَّ ٱللّٰہَ مَعَنَا
That is, “When he (the Holy Prophet(sa)) said to his companion, ‘Grieve not, for Allah is with us’, who was the companion?” He then said:
إِذۡ ہُمَا فِی ٱلۡغَارِ
“‘When they were both in the cave,’ who were these two?”
Hazrat Umar(ra) continued:
لَا تَحۡزَنۡ إِنَّ ٱللّٰہَ مَعَنَا
“‘Do not grieve, for Allah is with us’; who was it that was beside the Holy Prophet(sa)? Who was He with aside from Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra)?” Saying this, Hazrat Umar(ra) pledged his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and told the people to also swear allegiance, which they then did. (Al-Sunan al-Kubra li al-Nasa‘i, Kitab Wafat al-Nabi(sa), Hadith 7119, Vol. 4, p. 264, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1991)
After Hazrat Umar(ra), Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) bin al-Jarrah and Hazrat Bashir(ra) bin Sad pledged their allegiance, and in this manner all of the Ansar pledged allegiance. (Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2, p. 193, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 506)
In Islamic literature, this pledge is also known as the “Bai‘at Saqifah” or “Bai‘at Khassah”. (Tarikh al-Khulafa al-Rashidin, Vol. 3, p. 367, 22, Dar al-Nafa‘is, Beirut, 2011)
It is mentioned in some narrations that Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubadah did not pledge his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), whereas in other narrations it is evident that he pledged allegiance alongside all the Ansar. It is recorded in Tarikh al-Tabari that all the people pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) one after another, and Hazrat Saad(ra) bin Ubadah also pledged allegiance. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Sanat Ihda Asharah, Dhikr al-Khabar ‘amma Jara baina al-Muhajirin wa al-Ansar… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], p. 266)
Whilst mentioning the Khilafat that followed after the Holy Prophet(sa), Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“Observe how Khilafat was established after the Holy Prophet(sa), and how wonderfully so. After his demise, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) became the Khalifa. At the time, the Ansar desired for there to be a caliph from among them and one from among the Muhajirin. Having heard this, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), Hazrat Umar(ra) and some other companions immediately made their way to where the Ansar had gathered. He said, ‘It is wrong for there to be two caliphs and that Islam would not progress through division. There will only be one caliph. If you create division there will be disorder, your honour will be lost and the Arabs will tear you apart, so do not do this.’
“Some of the Ansar began presenting some arguments to him. Hazrat Umar(ra) narrates, ‘I assumed that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) did not possess the ability to deliver a speech, and so I should speak to the Ansar. However, when Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) addressed them he presented all the points I had in mind.’ Hazrat Umar(ra) continues, ‘In fact, he presented even more points. Seeing this, I thought to myself that today, this elderly gentleman has surpassed me.’ In the end, the grace of Allah was such that people from among the Ansar themselves stood up and proclaimed that whatever Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) had said was correct and that the Arabs would obey none other than the Meccans. One Ansari passionately said, ‘O my people, Allah the Almighty sent His Messenger(sa) to this nation. His kin drove him out of his city and we gave him a place in our homes, then as a result of this Allah Almighty granted us honour. We, of Medina, were without repute and lowly, but due to the Messenger(sa), we gained honour and repute. Hence, we should deem all of this sufficient for us and not become desirous for more, lest it harm us.’
“Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) then said, ‘It is vital to establish a Caliphate, so elect who you please as the Caliph, I myself have no desire to become the Caliph.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) further said, ‘This is Abu Ubaidah(ra) bin al-Jarrah, he was granted the title of “Custodian of the Ummah” by the Holy Prophet(sa), so you may pledge your allegiance to him. There is also Umar(ra) who is an unsheathed sword of Islam, so you may pledge allegiance to him.’ Hazrat Umar(ra) said, ‘Abu Bakr(ra), that is enough, give your hand and accept our pledge of allegiance.’ Allah the Almighty instilled this courage in the heart of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and he accepted their pledge of allegiance.” (Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya Markaziyyah ke Salanah Ijtema 1956 mein Khitabat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 25, pp. 402-403)
In reference to the pledge of allegiance at Saqifah Banu Sa‘idah, it is further reported that the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa) took place on a Monday. The people began pledging allegiance at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra). The remainder of that Monday, and on the morning of Tuesday, the collective bai‘at took place in the mosque.
Hazrat Anas(ra) bin Malik reports:
“The day after the (initial) bai‘at took place at Saqifah Bani Sa‘idah, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was seated in the mosque when Hazrat Umar(ra) stood to speak prior to him. He praised and glorified Allah, and then said, ‘O People, yesterday I said something to you’”, i.e that the Holy Prophet(sa) had not passed away, “‘which is not mentioned in Allah’s book anywhere, nor did the Holy Prophet(sa) disclose this to me. However, I believed that the Holy Prophet(sa) would watch over us.’”
The narrator continues, “Hazrat Umar(ra) said, ‘I thought that we would pass away before the Holy Prophet(sa) and that he would be the last of us. Undoubtedly, Allah the Almighty has left you such a thing [the Holy Quran] through which he guided the Holy Prophet(sa), and if you are resolute in adhering to it, then Allah the Almighty will also guide you as just He guided the Holy Prophet(sa). Allah the Almighty has now entrusted your matters to a man who is the best among you, and who was the companion of the Holy Prophet(sa); it was he about whom it was said:
ثَانِیَ ٱثۡنَیۡنِ إِذۡ ہُمَا فِی ٱلۡغَارِ
“‘“i.e. he was one among the two, when they were in the cave”. Therefore, hearken and pledge allegiance to him.’ And thus, following this the people pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).”
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) delivered an address on the day that the collective bai‘at took place. After praising and glorifying Allah, he stated:
“O People! Surely, I have been appointed as a guardian over you, but I am not the best among you. If I perform good works, then cooperate with me, and if I stray, then set me right. Upholding the truth is a trust, and falsehood is a breach of that trust. In my view, the weak among you are strong until I am able to afford them their rights from others. And the strong among you are weak in my sight until I am able to secure from them the rights of others – God willing. A nation that abandons jihad (struggle) for the sake of Allah is disgraced by Him, and a nation in which wrongdoings become prevalent is stricken with strife by Allah Himself. If I am obedient to Allah and His Messenger(sa), then follow me in obedience. However, if I am disobedient to Allah and His messenger(sa), then it is not compulsory for you to be obedient to me. Now, stand for prayer. May Allah have mercy on you all.” (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 6, Sanah 11 AH, Khilafat Abi Bakr(ra) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] pp. 298-299)
There are many narrations regarding Hazrat Ali’s(ra) pledge of allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra). In Tarikh al-Tabari, Habib bin Abi Thabit narrates:
“Hazrat Ali(ra) was in his home when a person came to him and said, ‘Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) is now taking the pledge of allegiance.’ Hazrat Ali(ra) was wearing a simple robe at the time. In that state, where he was not wearing any extra garments nor his mantle, he hurried to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and pledged allegiance to him for fear in case he was delayed. He then sat beside Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), after which he sent for his garments and dressed himself. He remained seated in the gathering around Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).” (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Hadith al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], p. 257)
The narrations regarding Hazrat Ali’s(ra) pledge of allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) vary; some narrations suggest that Hazrat Ali(ra) did not pledge allegiance for six months, and pledged allegiance after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah(ra), while other narrations suggest that Hazrat Ali(ra) was inclined to pledge allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) immediately.
Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri(ra) narrates:
“After Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) had taken the pledge of allegiance from the Muhajirin and Ansar, he stood at the pulpit and looked to the people and noticed that Hazrat Ali(ra) was not among them. Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) enquired about the whereabouts of Hazrat Ali(ra). Some people among the Ansar brought Hazrat Ali(ra). Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) [addressed him] and said, ‘O cousin and son-in-law to the Messenger(sa) of Allah, do you wish to break the strength of the Muslims?’ Hazrat Ali(ra) replied, ‘O Khalifa of the Messenger(sa) of Allah, do not deal strictly with me in this matter.’ Following this, he pledged allegiance to him.” (Al-Salabi, Sirat Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib Shaksiyyatuh wa Asruh [Beirut, Lebanon: Sar al-Ma’rifah, 2006], p. 119) (Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr I‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat ma Qalah al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 693)
Allamah Ibn Kathir states:
“Hazrat Ali(ra) bin Abi Talib pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) on the first or second day after the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), and this is the truth. The reason being is that Hazrat Ali(ra) never abandoned Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), nor did he refrain from praying behind him.” (Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr I‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat ma Qalah al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 694)
The Promised Messiah(as) states:
“Hazrat Ali, may Allah honour him, was initially somewhat hesitant in pledging allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra); however, when he reached home, only Allah knows what crossed his mind. He did not even wear his turban and instead wore a simple cap and came to pledge allegiance. He later asked for his turban to be brought. It seems that perhaps a thought crossed his mind that it would be a grave sin to abstain [from pledging allegiance] and this is why he left in such haste that he did not even tie his turban and instead came with a cap to pledge allegiance and asked for his turban to be brought later.” (Malfuzat, Vol. 10, p. 183)
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“Look to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and observe that he was just an ordinary merchant in Mecca. If the Holy Prophet(sa) was not raised as a prophet and the history of Mecca was still recorded, all that would be said about Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) is that he was a noble and honest Arab merchant. However, for his devotion to the Holy Prophet Muhammad(sa), he attained a rank that granted him respect and reverence around the entire world. When the Holy Prophet(sa) passed away and when the Muslims elected Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) as their caliph and king, this news spread to Mecca. A large gathering had formed in which the father of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), Abu Quhafah, was also present. When he heard that the people had pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), he could not come to terms with it. In astonishment, he asked the news bearer about which Abu Bakr he was referring to. He replied, ‘None other than your son, Abu Bakr.’ He began to site the names of every Arab tribe and asked, ‘Have they also pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr?’ And when he was told that everyone had unanimously chosen Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) to be their caliph and leader, then Abu Quhafah could not help but to remark:
أَشْہَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَـہَ إِلَّا اللّٰہُ وَحْدَہُ لَا شَرِیْـکَ لَـہُ وَأَشْہَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْـدُہُ وَرَسُوْلُـہُ
“That is, ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah the Almighty and that the Holy Prophet Muhammad(sa) is His servant and messenger.’”
Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) continues:
“This was despite the fact that Hazrat Abu Quhafah(ra) was already a Muslim and had pledged allegiance to the Holy Prophet(sa). The reason he recited the declaration of faith and reaffirmed the prophethood of the Holy Prophet(sa) was because the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was a stark realisation and he understood this to be a substantial proof for the truthfulness of Islam. [He said], ‘Otherwise, my son was not someone under whom all of Arabia could have united.’” (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, pp. 205-206)
Whilst mentioning this on another occasion, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) states:
“Ponder over the condition of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) prior to his acceptance of Islam. His father was still alive when he became the Khalifa and someone congratulated him that Abu Bakr(ra) had become the Khalifa. Upon this, he asked, ‘Which Abu Bakr?’ to which he replied, ‘Your son’. Even then he was not convinced and said it was probably someone else. However, when he was informed that indeed it was Abu Bakr(ra), he proclaimed, ‘Allah is the Greatest! How lofty is the grandeur of Muhammad(sa) in that the son of Abu Quhafah has been accepted by the Arabs as their leader!’ Thus, Abu Bakr(ra) who possessed no worldly rank, but he attained such honour owing to his subservience to the Holy Prophet(sa) that even today hundreds of thousands of people are proud to associate themselves with him.” (Khitab Jalsa Salana 17 March 1919, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 4, p. 425)
Hazrat Khalifatul Masih I(ra) states:
“Let it be known that Allah the Almighty does not remain indebted to anyone. In fact, however much one gives in the way of God, He grants hundreds of thousands times more in return. Look at the example of Abu Bakr(ra), he left a simple dwelling in Mecca, but God Almighty valued that so much that in return, he granted him authority to reign over an entire kingdom.”(Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Vol. 1, p. 244)
There is a dream of the Holy Prophet(sa) with regard to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) Khilafat. It has been narrated by Hazrat Abdullah(ra) bin Umar that the Holy Prophet(sa) stated:
“I was shown in a dream that I was standing beside a well, and I used the bucket that was hanging there to draw water out. In the meantime, Abu Bakr(ra) came and he drew one or two buckets of water in such a manner that it seemed as if he had done so with great difficulty due to weakness, but that Allah would cover up his weakness and forgive him. Then, Umar(ra) bin Khattab arrived and the bucket became larger, and I never saw such a mighty person as Umar who could perform such a monumental task. He drew so much water that everyone was satiated and then went back to their own dwellings.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi(sa), Bab Manaqib ‘Umar bin a-Khattab(ra), Hadith 3682)
There is a dream of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) as well. It is narrated that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) once saw in a dream that he was wearing a garment made from a Yemeni cloth; however, it had two stains on the chest area. Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) related this dream before the Holy Prophet(sa) and the Holy Prophet(sa) stated, “The Yemeni garment means that you will be granted a good progeny and the two stains mean leadership for a period of two years, in other words you will be the leader of the Muslims for two years.” (Kanz-ul-Ummal, Vol. 3, p. 253, Kitab al-Khilafah ma‘a al-Imarah, Hadith 14111, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2004)
There are some details with regard to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) allowance being fixed after he was appointed as the Khalifa. After becoming the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) came to Medina. Upon assessing his responsibilities, he realised that he would not be able to properly deal with affairs of the people if he was still engaged in his trade business. Hence, it was essential from him to be completely free from all other tasks in order to remain completely focused [on the affairs of the people], but at the same time, he also had to provide for his household. And so, he left his trade business and would take some funds daily from the bait-ul-maal [treasury] in order to cover his and his family’s expenses. A yearly allowance of 6,000 dirhams was approved to be taken from the Bait-ul-Maal for his personal expenses. (Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, Sanah 13 AH [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 354)
This was sufficient enough to cover his and his family’s needs. However, as the time of his demise drew near, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) instructed his family members that the money he had taken from the bait-ul-maal should be returned in its entirety. He instructed that such and such land of his should be sold and whatever he had taken from the wealth of the Muslims till that day ought to be repaid from the sale of that land. After the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), when Hazrat Umar(ra) became the Khalifa, he received the money [from that land] and upon this he began to cry and said, “O Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra)! You have left a huge burden of responsibility upon the successor after you.” (Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) [Book Corner, Jhelum], p. 122)
“Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was the leader of the entire Muslim world, but what did he receive? Despite having complete control over the public funds, he never took any of it for himself. Although Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was a very successful merchant, but since he had the habit that whatever wealth he received he would immediately spend it in the way of God Almighty, therefore it so happened that upon the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa) when he became the Khalifa, he did not have any money in cash at the time. The very next day after becoming the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) took a small bag of clothes and left in order to sell it. Hazrat Umar(ra) happened to meet him on the way and enquired what he was doing. Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) replied that after all he had to do something in order to eat; if he did not sell those clothes, how would he provide for himself. Hazrat Umar(ra) stated that this is not be plausible, because if he spent his time selling clothes, who would fulfil the responsibilities of the Caliph? Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) replied, ‘If I do not do this, how will I survive?’ Hazrat Umar(ra) said that he should take some allowance from the bait-ul-maal. Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) stated that he could not bear to take anything from the bait-ul-maal because he had no right over it. Hazrat Umar(ra) stated that when the Holy Quran had permitted that the funds of the bait-ul-maal could be spent on those who served their faith then why could he not take it. And so, an allowance was fixed for Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) from the bait-ul-maal. The amount that was fixed was just sufficient enough to cover the expense for food and clothes.” (Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 8, p. 468.)
Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) era of Khilafat was the shortest amongst all the Khulafa-e-Rashidin and spanned approximately two and a quarter year. Despite spanning such a short era, it is considered as one of the most significant and golden periods of Khilafat-e-Rashida. This is because Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) had to face the most danger and trials, and in turn, owing to God Almighty’s extraordinary help, support and blessings, within a short period of time, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s(ra) remarkable bravery, courage, sagacity and wisdom eliminated the precarious and dangerous circumstances and all the fears were transformed into peace. He crushed the unruly and rebellious people in a way that the leadership in the form of Khilafat, which appeared to be passing through a turbulent period, was established on firm foundations.
The dangerous circumstances and difficulties which Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) had to face have been mentioned by Umm al-Muminin, Hazrat Aisha(ra). Whilst mentioning this, the Promised Messiah(as) states:
“It has been narrated by Hazrat Aisha(ra), ‘When my father was appointed as Khalifa and Allah granted him leadership, right from the outset of his Khilafat he observed the upsurge of disorder from every direction, the efforts of the false claimants to prophethood and the rebellion of the hypocrites and apostates. The number of calamites he had to face were such that if they were to befall upon a mountain it would cause it to immediately crush and crumble to the ground. However, he was granted patience like that of the prophets and eventually Allah the Almighty bestowed His succour and the false claimants to prophethood and apostates were killed. The disorders and dangers were put to an end, the situation was resolved and the institution of Khilafat was firmly established. Allah the Almighty saved the believers from the calamity, transformed their state of fear into peace, established for them their religion, He established the entire land upon the truth and utterly humiliated those who sought to create disorder. Allah fulfilled His promise and granted support to His servant, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) and destroyed the leaders of the rebellion and their idols. The hearts of the disbelievers were completely overawed and they ultimately repented. This indeed was the promise of Allah, Who is the All-Powerful and Most Truthful. Thus, ponder how all the characteristics and hallmarks of Khilafat were fulfilled in the person of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra).’” (Sirr al-Khilafah [translated], pp. 49-50, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 8, p. 335)
Right from the outset of his Khilafat, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) had to face the following five trials.
The details of how Allah the Almighty granted success to Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) in order to completely eliminate these precarious circumstances, calamities and disorder will be mentioned further on. However, a detailed extract of the “The Just Arbiter”, the Promised Messiah(as) will be presented in which the Promised Messiah(as) has mentioned the similarity between Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and the first successor of Prophet Moses(as), Joshua, son of Nun, and also the difficulties and challenges faced by Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and the victory and success he was granted. The Promised Messiah(as) writes:
“The verse whereby the resemblance between the successors of the Mosaic dispensation and the successors of the Holy Prophet(sa) has been categorically and emphatically declared as follows:
وَعَدَ ٱللّٰہُ ٱلَّذِینَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنکُمۡ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَیَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّہُمۡ فِی ٱلۡأَرۡضِ کَمَا ٱسۡتَخۡلَفَ ٱلَّذِینَ مِن قَبۡلِہِمۡ
“That is, ‘Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will surely, make them Successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them.’ [Ch.24: V.56]
“When we ponder over the word that signifies resemblance and thus makes it incumbent for there to be similarities between the successors of the Holy Prophet(sa) and the successors of Prophet Moses(as), we must accept that Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was to establish the first foundation of this similarity and the final similarity was to be demonstrated by the Messiah, who was the last Khalifa of the Holy Prophet(sa).
“The similitude of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra), who was the first Khalifa, is like that of Joshua, son of Nun. After the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), God chose him for the station of Khilafat and He breathed in him a spirit of wisdom more than He did to anyone else. To the extent that all doubts and difficulties that could have arisen in the time of the Seal of the Caliphs [i.e. the Promised Messiah], regarding the false belief that Jesus [son of Mary] was alive, had been removed by Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) with the utmost clarity. The companions unanimously accepted that all previous prophets had passed away and not a single one of them believed otherwise. In fact, all the companions obeyed Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) in all matters, just like the Israelites obeyed Joshua, son of Nun, after the death of Moses(as). God provided succour and help to Moses and Joshua, just as he supported the Holy Prophet(sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) after him.”
“Yashu” son of Nun and “Yusha” son of Nun are the names of the same person. (Qamus al-Kitab, p. 1144, Under the word “Yusha”)
The Promised Messiah(as) further states:
“In reality, just as He did with Joshua, son of Nun, God Almighty blessed Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) so much so that no enemy could challenge him. Similarly, the unfinished matter of Usama’s(ra) army, which was similar to the tasks that remained unfinished in the time of Moses(as), was fulfilled by Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).
“There is another extraordinary similarity between Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and Joshua, and that is when Moses(as) passed away, the first person Allah the Almighty informed, by means of revelation, was Joshua. This was to save the Jews falling into doubt or error with regards to the death of Moses(as), as has been mentioned in the opening chapter of the book of Joshua(as) [in the Old Testament]. In the same manner, the first person to accept wholeheartedly that the Holy Prophet(sa) had passed away was Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra). He kissed the blessed body of the Holy Prophet(sa) and said, ‘You were pure in this life and even after death you remain pure.’ Then, before a large gathering, he removed all those doubts with regard to the Holy Prophet(sa) being alive that had persisted in the mind of some companions, by reciting a verse of the Holy Quran. At the same time, he uprooted the belief held by certain people – owing to not pondering over the sayings of the Holy Prophet(sa) – that the Messiah(as) [son of Mary] was alive. Just as Joshua(as), destroyed the enemies of the faith who spread falsehood and disorder, in the same way, many mischief-makers and false claimants of prophethood were killed at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).
“Prophet Moses(as) died in such a precarious time when the Israelites had not yet attained victory against the Canaanites, and were yet to accomplish many feats. All the while the cries of the enemies grew even more prominent after the death of Moses(as) which created an even more perilous situation. Likewise, a dangerous period followed the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa). Many tribes among Arabia abandoned their faith, some refused to pay the Zakat and many false claimants to prophethood rose up. Such perilous time required a strong, brave and valiant Khalifa, who had unwavering faith and determination, and thus Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was appointed the Khalifa. And as soon as he was appointed as the Khalifa, he had to face many great sorrows and hardship, as explained by the saying of Hazrat Aisha(ra) that ‘owing to dissention and rebellion, some tribes rose up as did certain false claimants to prophethood. They did this at a time when my father had been appointed as the Khalifa after the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa). So many trials and sorrows befell him, that had they descended upon a mountain, it would have broken into pieces and fallen to the ground.’ However, it is the law of nature that whenever a Khalifa is appointed after the demise of a prophet, a spirit is breathed into them, which instils them with the bravery, courage, resolve, wisdom and a strong heart; just like Allah the Almighty says to Joshua son of Nun in the Book of Joshua, chapter 1, verse 6, ‘Be strong and of good courage.’ That is to say that since Moses(as) had passed away, now he must stand strong. The same was revealed upon the heart of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) not as an injunction of the Sharia, but as a divine decree. The equivalence and similarity in the incidents make it seem as though Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah and Joshua, son of Nun are the same person. The similarity of their successorship has become established with the utmost clarity. When looking at the similarities between two established communities, it is natural to look at the first person or the last person. Usually, people do not consider it necessary to look at the similarities during the middle period of both communities, which requires more careful investigation and research. Instead, it is based on the first and last. For this reason, the similarities between Joshua and Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) – who were the first Caliphs of their respective communities – and also the similarities between Jesus, son of Mary, and the Promised Messiah of this Ummah – who were the last caliphs of their respective communities, have become manifest with full clarity. For example, the resemblance between Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and Joshua are so striking that it is as if they are one person, like two pieces of the same gemstone. Thus, after the demise of Moses(as), all of the Israelites hearkened to the call of Joshua and none from among them quarrelled in this matter and instead obeyed him, so too did this incident take place in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra). Despite shedding tears at the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), everyone wholeheartedly accepted the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).
“Thus, from every aspect, the similarity of Joshua(as) with Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(ra) can be proven. God supported Joshua(as) with His divine succour, as he would support Moses(as). In the same manner, God blessed the work of Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) for all the companions to see, and his prestige grew just as it does in the case of prophets. Having been imbued with the power and might from God Almighty, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) destroyed the false claimants of prophethood and those who tried to create disorder. This was so the companions, may Allah be pleased with them, understand that Allah is with Abu Bakr(ra), just as he was with the Holy Prophet(sa).
“Another remarkable similarity between Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) and Joshua(as), son of Nun is that after the demise of Prophet Moses(as), Joshua had to cross a dangerous river called the Jordan River, along with his army. The river was turbulent and to cross it seemed impossible. However, if they were not able to cross this dangerous river, it was plausible that the Israelites would perish at the hands of their enemies. Thus, after the demise of Prophet Moses(as), this was the first perilous situation faced by Joshua(as) in his ministry. During this trial, God Almighty saved Joshua(as), son of Nun and his army through the power of His miracle and caused the river to dry up, which enabled them to cross over easily. The reason it dried was due to the ebb and flow of the river or then an extraordinary miracle. Nonetheless, this is how God saved the Israelites from this danger and perishing at the hands of the enemy. After the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), the rightful caliph – Abu Bakr(ra) – and the companions, who numbered more than 100,000 faced a similar grave situation, in fact, it was even more dangerous; that was in the form of a fierce rebellion which swept throughout the land. It was certain that those Arab Bedouins, regarding whom Allah the Almighty had said:
قَالَتِ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ ءَامَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمۡ تُؤۡمِنُواْ وَلَٰکِن قُولُوٓاْ أَسۡلَمۡنَا وَلَمَّا یَدۡخُلِ ٱلۡإِیمَٰنُ فِی قُلُوبِکُمۡ
would show dissent, so that this prophecy would be fulfilled.”
The translation of the verse is: “The Arabs of the desert say, ‘We believe.’ Say, ‘You have not believed yet, but rather say, ‘We have submitted’, for true belief has not yet entered into your hearts.’”
Nonetheless, the Promised Messiah(as) continues:
“This is exactly what transpired and they all became apostates. Some of them refused to pay the Zakat and some claimed to be prophets and several hundreds of thousands wretched individuals rallied behind them. The force of the enemies grew so much that the number of the companions were no match in comparison. A fierce storm of opposition swept throughout the land. This scenario was far more dangerous than the one faced by Joshua(as), son of Nun. After the demise of Moses(as), Joshua(as) was embroiled in a grave trial, whereby they faced a tempestuous river and had no boats with which to cross it; all the while the threat of the enemy lingered around them. Similarly, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was faced with the trial of the demise of the Holy Prophet(sa), as well as a storm of opposition from the rebelling Arab tribes. A second trial – which was in the form of false claimants of prophethood – gave strength to the first trial. This trial was not anything less than the trial faced by Joshua(as), son of Nun, but in fact was much more dangerous. Thus, the Word of God gave strength to Joshua(as), wherein He stated, ‘the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go’, and, ‘Be strong and brave. Do not be discouraged.’ This gave strength to Joshua(as) and filled him with resolve and faith, the likes of which develops when one is reassured by God. Likewise, Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) drew strength from God when faced with a storm of rebellion. Anyone who is familiar with this period of Islamic history can concur that the trial faced by Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) was so grave, that were it not for the Hand of God beside Abu Bakr(ra), and if Islam was not a religion sent by God and if Abu Bakr(ra) was not the true Caliph, then on that day, Islam would have been annihilated. So, as was the case with Prophet Joshua(as), Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra) also drew strength from God’s pure word, because God Almighty had previously foretold of this trial in the Holy Quran. Thus, whosoever deliberates over the following verse, will become certain beyond any doubt that this trial had already been mentioned in the Holy Quran; and that prophecy was:
وَعَدَ ٱللَّہُ ٱلَّذِینَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنکُمۡ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَیَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّہُمۡ فِی ٱلۡأَرۡضِ کَمَا ٱسۡتَخۡلَفَ ٱلَّذِینَ مِن قَبۡلِہِمۡ وَلَیُمَکِّنَنَّ لَہُمۡ دِینَہُمُ ٱلَّذِی ٱرۡتَضَىٰ لَہُمۡ وَلَیُبَدِّلَنَّہُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِہِمۡ أَمۡنٗا ۚ یَعۡبُدُونَنِی لَا یُشۡرِکُونَ بِی شَیۡـٔٗا ۚ وَمَن کَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِکَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
“Meaning that ‘Allah has promised the pious believers that he would make them successors in the earth, similar to the successors He made in the past and would appoint vicegerents in this ummah, like he appointed vicegerents after Prophet Moses(as).’”
The Promised Messiah(as) has himself written this explanatory translation.
The Promised Messiah(as) further says:
“’He would appoint vicegerents in this ummah, like he appointed vicegerents after Prophet Moses(as) and he would establish for them their religion, (i.e. Islam) which He has chosen for them, He would reinforce this religion and give them in exchange security and peace after their fear. They will worship Me, and they will not associate anything with Me’. Deliberate over this verse which clearly states that there will be a period of fear wherein peace would fade away. However, God will transform this period of fear into a period of peace and security. Thus, this period of fear fell upon Joshua(as), son of Nun, and just as the Word of God assured him, in the same way, the Word of God assured Hazrat Abu Bakr(ra).” (Tohfah Golarwiyyah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 17, pp. 183-189)
The details of the remaining five aspects will be explained in the future, insha-Allah.
Pray for the current state of conflict in the world. The situation continues to become increasingly perilous and now even threats of atomic warfare are being made. As I have mentioned previously on many occasions, this will have horrendous consequences which the future generations will have to endure. It is only Allah Who can guide these people.
Recite a lot of durood [invoking salutations upon the Holy Prophet(sa)] these days and also istighfar [seeking forgiveness]. May Allah the Almighty forgive us of our sins and grant wisdom and understanding to the leaders of the world.
On one occasion, the Promised Messiah(as) particularly drew the attention of the Jamaat towards reciting the following prayer:
رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِی ٱلدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃٗ وَفِی ٱلۡأٓخِرَۃِ حَسَنَۃٗ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
The Promised Messiah(as) stated that one should recite this whilst standing after the ruku [bowing in Salat]. (Malfuzat, Vol. 1, p. 9)
There is a great need these days to extensively recite this prayer. May Allah the Almighty grant us the bounties and also protect everyone from all forms of punishment of the fire.
I will also lead a funeral prayer in-absentia today of respected Abu Al-Farj Al-Husni Sahib of Syria, who passed away on 13 February at the age of 90.
إِنَّا لِلَّہِ وَإِنَّآ إِلَیۡہِ رَٰجِعُونَ
[“Surely, to Allah we belong and to Him shall we return.”]
His father, respected Muhammad Al-Husni Sahib was among the pioneer Ahmadis [in Syria]. He accepted Ahmadiyyat through the [preaching] efforts of Maulana Jalaluddin Shams Sahib. Abu Al-Farj Al-Husni Sahib was the nephew of the first amir of the Syrian jamaat, respected Munir Al-Husni Sahib and also served as the naib amir during his time in office and afterwards as well.
He was born in 1933; he was positively influenced by the virtues, piety and academic discussions with his uncle, Munir Al-Husni Sahib as he would often sit in his company. He was 15 years old when, one day, he was moved to tears upon hearing the recitation of the Holy Quran on the radio. He went to his uncle and said that he wished to learn more about Allah. He gave him a book of the Promised Messiah(as), and when he read it, a great transformation came about within him and he went to his uncle saying that he wished to pledge allegiance.
He had the good fortune of meeting three Caliphs; he was blessed with the opportunity of meeting Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II(ra) in 1955 when Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra) visited Damascus and he also had the opportunity of serving as part of Huzoor’s(ra) security. Then, in 1972, he had the opportunity of travelling to Pakistan and spending a few months in the company of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih III(rh) in Rabwah, during which time he was able to learn Urdu and attain in depth knowledge regarding the Jamaat. In the same year, he was able to travel from Pakistan to Qadian. In 1986 he travelled to England on the occasion of Jalsa Salana and had the honour of an audience with Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV(rh). Then in 2017, he was able to attend Jalsa Salana Qadian once again and also delivered a brief address in Arabic during the Jalsa.
The deceased was virtuous, pious, sincere and an elder whose actions were in accordance with his words. He did not have any children and his wife is not an Ahmadi.
The sadr [president] of the Syrian jamaat says:
“I accompanied him in 2017 on a visit to Qadian. He was quite weak, yet the degree of his passion was such that it seemed as if he was not walking; rather, it was as if he was soaring in the air.” Initially he was reluctant to go because of his illness, but when I told him that he should visit, he said that now that the Khalifa had given an order, or said that he should go, then there was no need to worry. Allah the Almighty bestowed His blessings and both he and his wife were cured from their illness and weakness. Thus, by the grace of Allah the Almighty, he travelled to Qadian, in fact he was also able to climb to the top of Minaratul Masih. It is said that he climbed to the top faster than the youths who were there, despite the fact that he had previously experienced difficulty in walking.
Mousallam Aldroubi Sahib, who is a doctor, writes:
“I, as are others, am witness to the fact that the deceased was a friend of Allah and from among the devotees of Syria. He was a renowned tradesman in Damascus. He was exemplary and well-known. He was very wise and intelligent. He was regular in offering Tahajjud [voluntary pre-dawn] prayers. He experienced true dreams, many of which were fulfilled, including those pertaining to the various hardships and struggles faced by Syria. When various missionaries travelled to Syria in order to study Arabic he would treat them very respectfully, firstly because they had been sent by the Khalifa and secondly because they had dedicated their lives for the sake of propagating the message of Islam.”
Husam Al-Naqeeb Sahib, the former sadr of Syria who currently resides in Turkey, writes:
“The deceased possessed many excellent qualities, the foremost of which was his love for the Promised Messiah(as) and his Khulafa. I will never forget my trip to Qadian with him, a trip in which every aspect was a miracle. I remained with him throughout our visit to Qadian, and he would constantly pray, ‘O God, bestow the Khalifa with Your help and support and bestow your blessings in his life and everything he does.’” He further writes, “Whenever someone was mentioning a directive from the Khalifa in a gathering, he would not allow anyone else to speak so that he could hear, understand and derive benefit from the directive in its entirety.”
He was extremely selfless. It did not please him to hear others complimenting him; rather, he would admonish them saying to leave such things, because Allah and His community are all that matter and that they should speak about the Jamaat instead. He always studied the books of the Promised Messiah(as). Aside from the last few years of his life when he was extremely weak, he never stopped studying Jamaat literature. He had a special attachment to Tafsir-e-Kabir by Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud(ra). Whenever someone asked him about the commentary of a verse in the Holy Quran, he would presented the explanation given in Tafsir-e-Kabir.
His nephew, Muhammad Ammar Al-Miski Sahib who lives here in the UK says:
“I was 14 years old when I used to go with him to offer the Friday prayer. While returning home with him, I would ask him questions about things pertaining to the Jamaat along the way and he would answer in great detail. Jamaat literature was not available in Syria, and so the deceased played a huge role in imparting Jamaat knowledge to its members. He had learned to read Urdu while visiting Rabwah and would bring Urdu books back with him in order to read and understand them. He would then translate them into Arabic so he could help explain them to members of the Jamaat.”
The deceased was selfless and never desired any official post but preferred to always remain a servant of the faith. Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV(rh) wished to appoint him as the amir; however, he [Al-Husni Sahib] said that people might assert that the office of amir had become an inherited post based on lineage and thus requested for someone else to be appointed, and he would fully cooperate with whoever it was. Thereafter he cooperated with an amir who was younger than him and was in fact exemplary in his cooperation.
May Allah the Almighty grant the deceased forgiveness, elevate his station and accept all his prayers in favour of his wife and enable her to accept Ahmadiyyat. After the prayers, I will offer his funeral prayer in-absentia.
Official Urdu transcript published in Al Fazl International, 25 March 2022, pp. 5-10. Translated by The Review of Religions.