In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.

Muslims who believe in the Messiah,
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)
Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.

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Appendix II: Sects in Islam

A number of lists are seen in the literature [60-62] giving the names of the sects. Two I used to produce the following list are those of Islamic encyclopedia published by Munshi Mehboob ‘Alim [60] and that of abu-Mansur al-Baghdadi [61]. Abu-Mansur al-Baghdadi’s list was produced around 10th century AD and he has included an number of political movement as separate sects. Such movements differed from each other on the question of leadership and had no theological differences and thus I believe that can not be considered as independent sect, so in my list I have not included such political movements as independent sects. On the other hand Munshi Mehboob ‘Alim has included in his list, sects which rejects some of the fundamental beliefs of Islam while abu-Mansur al-Baghdadi does not consider them to be a part of Islam. For example Ghullat and all its subsects believe in the divinity of Ali, Zanadiqiyahs and some other sects do not believe in the Day of Judgement etc. While preparing the following list I agree with Baghdadi and do not include such sects. Finally, Munshi Mehboob ‘Alim has listed two sects ‘Aliviyah and Ajariyah distinguishing between them on the basis that one believes in the prophethood of Ali while the other one believes that Ali was a partner in prophethood. I consider these two to be one sect. Other than the above mentioned differences the two lists I used are identical except the fact that Munshi Mehboob ‘Alim divides the whole Ummah into six major branches i.e. 1.Rafidiya, 2.Kharijiya, 3.Jabariyah, 4.Qadriyah, 5.Jahmiyah and 6. Marjiyah. While abu-Mansur list the sects of Jahmiyah under the main class Marjiyah and Jabariyah under the Qadriya, thus dividing the Ummah into only four major classes, i.e. 1.Rafidiyah, 2.Kharijiya, 3.Qadriya and 4. Marjiyah. The only other difference found is that the two authors sometimes use different names for the same sect which becomes clear while looking at the beliefs associated to them. This I believe is because the two authors resided in different regions (one in Arabia the other in Indo-Pak subcontinent) at different times so perhaps the same sects may have been known with different names in different regions. I have tried to include various names given to the same sect by both authors where ever possible.

Name of the Sect

Basic Belief Distinguishing it from Others


Followers of Abu’l-Jarud, They believe Prophet (pbuh) designated Ali (ra) as the Imam by his characteristics but not by name.

2. Sulaimaniah / Jaririyah

Followers of Sulaiman ibn-Jarir al-Zaidi, They believed Imamat was a matter of conference and could be confirmed by two best Muslims.

3. Butriyah / Hurariyah

They did not dispute the Khilafat of Uthman, neither they attack him nor praise him.

4. Yaqubiyya

They accepted the Khilafat of Abu Bakr and Umar, but did not reject those who rejected these Khulafaa. They also believed that Muslim committers of Major sins will be in hell fire forever.

5. Hanafiyah

Followers of the Imammate of Muhammad ibn-al-Hanifah. They believe that Allah might have had a beginning.

6. Karibiyah

They believed that Imam Muhammad ibn-al-Hanifah is not dead and is the Imam Ghaib (in disappearance) and the expected Mahdi.

7. Kamiliyah

Followers of abu-Kamil. They believed companions to be heretic because they forsook their allegiance to Ali and condemn Ali for ceasing to fight them. They believed in the returning of the dead before the Day of Resurrection and that Satan is right in preferring fire to clay.

8. Muhammadiyyah / Mughairiyah

Followers of Muhammad ibn-‘Abdullah ibn-al-Hassan. They do not believe that Imam Muhammad ibn-‘Abdullah died and that he is Imam Ghaib and awaited Mahdi.

9. Baqiriyah

Followers of Muhammad ibn-‘Ali al-Baqir. They believe him to be the Imam Ghaib and expected Mahdi.

10. Nadisiyah

They believe that those who consider themselves better than anyone else are Kafirs (disbelievers).

11. Sha’iyah

They believe that the one who has recited La Ilaha Il-Allah (There is none worthy of worship except Allah), whatever she or he does, will never be punished.

12. Ammaliyah

They believe that faith for one is what he/she sincerely practices.

13. Ismailiyah

They believe in the continuity of Imammate among the descendants of Ismail ibn-Ja’far.

14. Musawiyah / Mamturah

They believe Musa ibn-Ja’far to be the Imam Ghaib and expected Mahdi.

15. Mubarikiyah

They believe in the continuity of Imammate among the descendants of Muhammad ibn-Ismail ibn-Ja’far.

16. Kathiyah / Ithn ‘Ashariya (the Twelvers)

They believe that expected Mahdi will be the twelveth Imam among the descendants of ‘Ali ibn-abi-Talib.

17. Hashamiya / Taraqibiyah

They Predicate a body to Allah and also allege Prophet (pbuh) of disobedience to Allah.

18. Zarariyah

They believed that Allah did not live nor had any attributes till He created for Himself life and His attributes.

19. Younasiyah

Followers of Younas ibn-‘Abd-al-Rahman al-Kummi. They believe that Allah is borne by bearers of His Throne, though He is stronger than they.

20. Shaitaniyah / Shireekiyah

They believed in the view that deeds of servants of Allah are substances; and a servant of Allah can really produce a substance.

21. Azraqiah

Followers of Nafi ibn-al-Azraq. They do not believe in the good dreams and vision and claim that all forms of revelation has ended.

22. Najadat

Followers of Najdah ibn-‘Amir al-Hanafi. They abolished the punishment for drinking wine also they believed that sinners of this sect would not be treated in hellfire but some other place before allowed in paradise.

23. Sufriyah

Followers of Ziyad ibn-al-Asfar. They believed that sinners are in fact polytheists.

24. Ajaridah

Followers of Abd-al-Karim ibn-Ajrad. They believed that a child should be called to Islam after it has attained maturity. Also they believed booty of war to be unlawful till the owner is killed.

25. Khazimiyah

They believe Allah loves men of all faiths even if one has been disbeliever most of his life.

26. Shuaibiyah / Hujjatiyah

They believe that what Allah desires does happen no matter what and what does not happen it means Allah desires it not.

27. Khalafiyah

Followers of Khalaf. They do not believe in fighting except under the leadership of an Imam.

28. Ma’lumiyah / Majhuliyah

They believed that whoever did not recognize Allah by all His names was ignorant of Him and anyone ignorant of Him was a disbeliever.

29 Saltiyah

Followers of Salt ibn-Uthman. They believed in the conversion of adults only and if father has converted to Islam children were considered disbeliever till they reach maturity.

30. Hamziyah

Followers of Hamza ibn-Akrak. They believe that children of polythiests are condemned to hell.

31. Tha’libiyah

Followers of Tha’labah ibn-Mashkan. They believe that parents remain guardian over their children of any age until children make it clear to parents that they are turning away from truth.

32. Ma’badiyah

They did not believe in taking or giving alms from or to slaves.

33. Akhnasiyah

They do not believe in waging a war except in defense or when the opponent is known personally.

34. Shaibaniyah / Mashbiyah

Followers of Shaiban ibn-Salamah al-Khariji. They believe Allah resembles His creatures.

35. Rashidiyah

They believe that land watered by springs, canals or flowing rivers should pay half the Zakat (Tithe), while land watered by rain only should pay the full Zakat.

36. Mukarramiyah / Tehmiyah

Followers of abu-Mukarram. They believe that ignorance constitutes as disbelief. Also that Allah enmity or friendship depends upon the state of a persons belief at his death.

37. Ibadiyah / Af’aliyah

Consider Abdullah ibn-Ibad as their Imam. They believe in doing good deeds without the intention of pleasing Allah.

38. Hafsiyah

Consider Hafs ibn-abi-l-Mikdam as their Imam. They believe that only knowing Allah frees one from polytheism

39. Harithiya

Followers of Harith ibn-Mazid al-Ibadi. They believe that the ability precedes the deeds.
40. Ashab Ta’ah They believe that Allah can send a prophet without giving him any sign to prove his prophecy.

41. Shabibiyah / Salihiyah

Followers of Shabib ibn-Yazid al-Shaibani. They believe in the Imamate of a woman named Ghazalah.

42. Wasiliyah

Followers of Wasil ibn-‘Ata al-Ghazza. They believe that those who commit major sins will be punished in hell but still remain believers.

43. ‘Amriyah

Followers of ‘Amr ibn-Ubaid ibn-Bab. They reject the legal testimony of people from supporters of either side of the battle of Camel.

44. Hudhailiyah / Faniya

Followers of abu-al-Hudhail Muhammad ibn-al-Hudhail. They believe that both Hell and Paradise will perish and that preordination of Allah can cease, at which time Allah will no longer be omnipotent.

45. Nazzamiyah

Followers of abu-Ishaq Ibrahim ibn-Saiyar. They do not believe in the miraculous nature of the Holy Quran nor do they believe the miracles of Holy Prophet (pbuh) like splitting the moon.

46. Mu’ammariyah

They Believe that Allah neither creates life nor death but it is an act of the nature of living body..

47. Bashriyah

Followers of Bashr ibn-al-Mu’tamir. They believe that Allah may forgive a man his sins and may change His mind about this forgiveness and punish him if he is disobedient again.

48. Hishamiyah

Followers of Hisham ibn-‘Amr al-Futi. They believe that if a Muslim community come to consensus it need an Imam and if it rebels and kills its Imam, no one should be chosen an Imam during a rebellion.

49. Murdariyah

Followers of Isa ibn-Sabih. They believe that staying in close communication with the Sultan (ruler) makes one unbeliever.

50. Ja’friyah

Followers of Ja’far ibn-Harb and Ja’far ibn-Mubashshir. They believe that drinking raw wine is not punishable and that punishment of hell could be inferred by a mental process.

51. Iskafiyah

Followers of Muhammad ibn-Abdallah al-Iskafi. They believe that Allah has power to oppress children and madmen but not those who have their full senses.

52. Thamamiyah

Followers of Thamamah ibn-Ashras al-Numairi. They believe that he whom Allah does not compel to know Him, is not compelled to know and is classed with animals who are not responsible.

53. Jahiziayh

Followers of ‘Amr ibn-Bahr al-Jahiz. They believe that Allah is able to create a thing but unable to annihilate it.

54. Shahhamiyah / Sifatiyah

Followers of abu-Yaqub al-Shahham. They everything determined is determined by two determiners, one the Creator and the other acquirer.

55. Khaiyatiyah / Makhluqiyah

Followers of abu-al-Husain al-Khaiyat. They believe that everything non-existant is a body before it appears, like man before it is born is a body in non-existance. Also that every attribute becomes existant when it makes its appearance.

56. Ka’biyah

Followers of abu-Qasim Abdullah ibn-Ahmad ibn-Mahmud al-Banahi known as al-Ka’bi. They believe that Allah does not see Himself nor anyone else except in the sense that He knows Himself and others.

57. Jubbaiyah

Followers of abu-‘Ali al-Jubbai. They believe that Allah obeys His servants when He fulfill their wish


Followers of abu-Hashim. They believe that one who desires to do a bad deed, though may not do it, commits infidelity and deserves punishment.

59. Ibriyah.

They believe that Holy Prophet (pbuh) was a wise man but not a prophet.

60. Muhkamiyah

They believe that God has no control over His creations.

61. Qabariyya

They do not believe in the punishment of grave.

62. Hujjatiya

They do not believe in the punishment for deeds on the grounds that because everything is determined so whatever one does s/he is not responsible for it..

63. Fikriyya

They believe that doing Dhikr and Fikr (Remembering and thinking about Allah) is better than worship.

64. ‘Aliviyah / Ajariyah

They believe that Hazrat Ali share prophethood with Muhammad (pbuh).

65. Tanasikhiya

They believe in the re-incarnation of soul.

66. Raji’yah

They believe that Hazrat Ali ibn-abi-Talib will return to this world.

67. Ahadiyah

They believe in the Fardh (obligations) in faith but deny the sunnah.

68. Radeediyah

They believe that this world will live forever.

69. Satbiriyah

They do not believe in the acceptance of repentance.

70. Lafziyah

They believe that Quran is not the word of God but only its meaning and essence is the word of God. Words of Quran are just the words of narrator.

71. Ashariyah

The believe that Qiyas (taking a guess) is wrong and amounts to disbelief.

72. Bada’iyah

They believe that obedience to Ameer is obligatory no matter what he commands.