In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.

Muslims who believe in the Messiah,
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)
Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.

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Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (ra)

Period of Khilafat: 656-661 AD

With the death of Hazrat Uthman(ra), state of complete disorder and  anarchy ruled in the city of Medina. After five days of political wrangling, Ibn Saba, leader of the Egyptian rebel group supported the cause of Hazrat Ali(ra) on the grounds that he was the rightful Khalifah in whose favor the Holy Prophet(saw) has made will. On June 23, 656AD, six days after the death of Hazrat Uthman(ra) , Hazrat Ali(ra) was chosen as the fourth successor of the Holy Prophet(saw) and the public swore allegiance at his hand one by one.

Hazrat Ali(ra) was the son of the Holy Prophet’s(saw) uncle, Abu Talib. He was born in Mecca about twenty years after the birth of the Holy Prophet(saw). When Hazrat Ali(ra) was born, the Holy Prophet(saw) himself became his guardian, as his father’s financial position was very weak.

Hazrat Ali(ra) stayed in the bed of the Holy Prophet(saw) the night when he Holy Prophet(saw) left Mecca for Medina. The Mecan leaders had planned to arrest and kill the Holy Prophet(saw). The next morning, they were enraged when they found Hazrat Ali(ra) in the bed, instead of the Holy Prophet(saw).

Hazrat Ali(ra) was a brave and skilled warrior. He participated in almost all the battles along with the Holy Prophet(saw). Hazrat Ali(ra) was married to Hazrat Fatimah(ra) who was the daughter of the Holy Prophet(saw).

Soon after his election, Hazrat Ali(ra) moved the capital of the Muslim State from Medina to Kufa in Iraq, which was a more central place. After his election, he faced the popular demand of Muslims, including influential companions of the Holy Prophet(saw), like Hazrat Talha(ra), and Hazrat Zubair(ra) to immediately punish the murderers of Hazrat Uthman(ra).

Hazrat Ali(ra) announced that his top priority was to restore law and order in the state, and only then he would be able to bring the assassins of  Hazrat Uthman(ra) to justice. But Hazrat Talha(ra) and Hazrat Zubair(ra) did not agree with Hazrat Ali(ra) and started raising an army. Hazrat Aishah(ra) who was not aware of the real situation, also joined Hazrat Talha(ra) and Hazrat Zubair(ra) , in an effort to punish the assassins. The three led a small army towards Basra.

Hazrat Ali(ra) tried his best to avoid fighting and bloodshed, but all his efforts failed. Unfortunately, a battle took place between his forces and the forces of Hazrat Aishah(ra). However, Hazrat Talha(ra) and Hazrat Zubair(ra) left their forces even before the battle, and were killed by some other opponents. Hazrat Aishah’s(ra) forces were defeated, but Hazrat Ali(ra) gave her due respect and took care of her safety. He sent her back to Medina in the escort of her brother, Muhammad bin Abu Bakr(ra). The battle was called the Battle of Jamal (Camel) because Hazrat Aishah(ra) rode a camel during the battle. Later, Hazrat Aishah(ra) was regretful throughout her life to have fought against Hazrat Ali(ra).

After the Battle of Jamal, Hazrat Ali(ra) urged Amir Muawiah(ra), who had not yet taken the Bai’at of Hazrat Ali(ra) to submit to him in the best interest of Islam. But Amir Muawiah(ra) refused to submit on the pretext that the blood of Hazrat Uthman(ra), who also belonged to family of Umayyah, must be avenged first.

Amir Muawiah(ra), with the help of Amr Bin As(ra), started raising an army. Hazrat Ali(ra) had no alternative but to advance towards Syria to fight Amir Muawiah(ra). In July, 657AD, the two armies met in a battle at Saffain. There were heavy casualties on both sides, but the battle ended in an accord that the matter be decided by an arbitration committee. This consisted of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari(ra), representing Hazrat Ali(ra), and Amr Bin As(ra) representing Amir Muawia(ra). Unfortunately, this arbitration ended in failure because Amr Bin As(ra) deviated from the decision agreed upon with Abu Musa al-Ash’ari(ra).

A large group of people, who were basically against the proposal of arbitration, separated from Hazrat Ali(ra) and chose an independent Amir for themselves. This group was called Khawariji, meaning `The Outsiders’. At first, Hazrat Ali(ra) tried to persuade them to submit to him, but failed. This led to a fierce battle in which most of the Khawariji were killed.

After this crushing defeat, the Khawariji planned to assassinate Hazrat Ali(ra), Hazrat Amir Muawiah(ra) and Amr bin As(ra). The latter two escaped from the attempts on their lives. Hazrat Ali(ra) was fatally wounded by his attacker, while going to the mosque for Fajr prayer. Two days latter, this courageous and pious Khalifah passed away on 20th Ramadan, 40 AH. Undoubtedly, Hazrat Ali(ra) sacrificed his life for the integrity of Khilafat. He was one of the ten blessed ones to whom the Holy Prophet(saw) had given the glad tidings that they had been rewarded the paradise.