Some prerequisites and conditions exist regarding the offering of Prayers. They are as follows:
Determination of Intention: The intention to perform a Prayer must be made prior to the beginning of the Prayer.
The Prayer should be offered within the fixed time allotted for that particular Prayer. However, it should be remembered that if one fails to perform a Prayer in time due to some compelling reasons, that Prayer can be offered whenever one remembers it. However, it should not be offered at forbidden times. The question arises that if the timings for Prayer and fasting, etc., are associated with the duration of sunlight, with the rotation of the earth and the relative position of the sun and moon, how could one determine the timings of Prayer and fasting in extreme Southern and Northern areas where the duration of days and nights are longer than twenty-four hours? It should be noted that the Holy Prophet(sa) replying to a question from a Companion, explained that in those areas where the days and nights are of longer duration as compared to the normal 24-hour day, Muslims should offer their Prayers by measuring time in accordance with the normal length of a day.
One should be clean in body and, as far as possible, in mind and spirit also. Cleanliness here is a term which means:
The body should be clean from all filth.
If one has answered the call of nature and has been to the toilet, one should wash oneself properly so that all remnants of faeces or urine have been properly washed away.
After conjugation, whether ejaculation has taken place or not or when, in whatever manner, ejaculation has taken place, for instance during sleep, cleanliness would mean not just washing oneself partially, but a full bath becomes essential.A full bath is also essential for women after menstruation, and after post-parturition bleeding (bleeding following childbirth).
The place and mat of Prayer must be neat and clean.
The body must be properly covered during the Prayer.
Qiblah or Direction: All Muslims must face towards the Ka‘bah. Qiblah means facing the Ka‘bah in Makkah, the first House of worship built on earth.
All Muslims throughout the world should always face the general direction of the Ka‘bah during every Prayer. However, during a journey and when travelling, if one fails to determine the direction properly or when one is unable to face towards the Ka‘bah because of illness, for it is beyond one’s capacity to do so, then one is not obliged to face towards the Qiblah. Also, when on a journey, riding on a mount, train, boat or plane, one should say one’s Prayers facing in the same direction towards which one is moving, or indeed any convenient position will be acceptable.